Skip to main content

LANGUAGE PLANNING

LANGUAGE PLANNING. The attempt to control the use, status, and structure of a language through a language policy developed by a government or other authority. Normally carried out by official agencies, such planning usually passes through several stages: a particular language or variety of a language is selected; codification is undertaken to stabilize it, for example by agreeing writing conventions for previously non-literate languages; the codified language is adjusted to enable it to perform new functions, for example by inventing or borrowing scientific vocabulary; and mechanisms are devised, such as teaching syllabuses and procedures for monitoring the media, to ensure that the language is used in conformity with the policy. This sequence is rarely appropriate for English, whose dominant role in the world gives it a unique position, but English is nonetheless officially planned into national education systems in various ways. In Britain, WELSH has been promoted through the National Curriculum in Wales as a subject to be compulsorily learnt within Wales, but is not compulsorily available to Welsh speakers or others outside Wales. In post-colonial nations the relationship of English to indigenous languages is often carefully defined: as the language of secondary and tertiary education in Tanzania while SWAHILI is the national language; as an official language recognized for legal purposes in India; as a library language in some subjects in some South American universities. Planning policy may be achieved through agencies at a number of levels in a state hierarchy. Governments may define their language policy throughout a country, ministries of education may define it within education, and institutions may contribute to planning through their own policies: for example, in the UK in the 1980s, local education authorities and individual schools attempted to define the roles of various especially migrant languages like Punjabi and Cantonese within particular regions or institutions. See ACADEMY, STANDARD.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"LANGUAGE PLANNING." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. 6 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"LANGUAGE PLANNING." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 6, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/language-planning

"LANGUAGE PLANNING." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Retrieved November 06, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/language-planning

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.