Italian art and architecture
Italian art and architecture Painting, sculpture, and other art produced in Italy following the Roman period. By the 6th century, trade with the Byzantine Empire had brought a Byzantine influence to Italian art, which lasted through the 11th century. The chief centres of the Italo-Byzantine style were Venice, Tuscany, Rome and the deep south. Mosaics and stylized, geometric forms became standard. Icon panels were the main type of paintings during the 11th through the 13th centuries, with major schools in Siena, Lucca and Pisa. By the time of the Renaissance, the emphasis was on balance and harmony, with such masters as Leonardo da Vinci, Ghiberti, Donatello, Botticelli and Michelangelo. Mannerism developed in Florence late in the Renaissance but faded by the end of the 16th century, giving way to the Baroque style of the 17th century. This was typified by artists such as the painter Caravaggio and the architect Bernini. In the 18th and 19th centuries, neo-classicism was inspired by Classical Roman art, the subject of Piranesi's engravings. The 20th century saw the birth of Futurism, as well as the more tranquil works of Modigliani and de Chirico. Since the 1960s, Italian designers have been highly influential internationally.
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