Skip to main content

Seringal

Seringal

A seringal, or rubber estate, is a large tract of Amazonian rain forest usually located on a river to facilitate the transport of rubber to market. Although land titles were easy to come by after the rubber boom began in the 1840s, they were often ill-defined, and battles were often fought over ownership of the seringal. The owner, or seringalista, often lived in Manaus, while agents or lessees (usually in debt to the rubber baron) ran their vast estates. Rubber barons kept gatherers on their seringais through a system of debt peonage. After World War II, the large rubber estates began to break up, and many seringalistas abandoned or sold their estates. Many rubber gatherers have remained on the land and continue to collect rubber from the trees.

See alsoRubber Industry .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Barbara Weinstein, The Amazon Rubber Boom, 1850–1920 (1983).

Austin Coates, The Commerce in Rubber: The First 250 Years (1987).

Warren Dean, Brazil and the Struggle for Rubber (1987).

Additional Bibliography

Costa, Francisco de Assis. Grande capital e agricultura na Amazonia: A experiencia Ford no Tapajós. Belém: Editorial Universitaria UFPA, 2003.

Ferreira, Maria Liege Frietas. O poder de arregimentaçao do estado: A utopia nos seringais amazonicos (1940–1945.) Curitiba: Aos Quatro Ventos, 2003.

Rodrigues, Gomercindo and Linda Rabben. Walking the Forest with Chico Mendes: Struggle for Justice in the Amazon. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007.

                                  Carolyn Jostock

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Seringal." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Seringal." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 20, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/seringal

"Seringal." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved November 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/seringal

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.