Skip to main content

Martínez, Tomás (1820–1873)

Martínez, Tomás (1820–1873)

Tomás Martínez (b. 21 December 1820; d. 12 March 1873), president of Nicaragua (1859–1867). In his early life Martínez was involved in commerce and agriculture, only later turning to the military. He became president in 1859, after the ouster of U.S. filibuster William Walker during the National War (in which Martínez emerged as a central figure). His administration developed a program that included the reorganization of agriculture, increased coffee cultivation, state support for secular schools, industrial growth, limitations on government monopolies, separation of church and state, abolition of the death penalty, establishment of trial by jury, and a plan for direct elections.

Ironically, although his administration ushered in thirty years of Conservative Party rule, his plan for direct elections ultimately caused the Conservative Party to split into four factions, creating a tumultuous situation that led to the installation of Liberal José Santos Zelaya as president in 1893.

See alsoNicaragua .


Sara Luisa Barquero, Gobernantes de Nicaragua, 1825–1947 (1945), esp. pp. 117-124.

Francisco Ortega Arancibia, Cuarenta años (1838–1878) de historia de Nicaragua (1975).

Benjamin I. Teplitz, "The Political and Economic Foundations of Modernization in Nicaragua: The Administration of José Santos Zelaya, 1893–1909" (Ph.D. diss., Howard University, 1973), esp. p. 7.

Additional Bibliography

Cruz, Arturo J. Nicaragua's Conservative Republic, 1858–93. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

Velázquez P., José L. La formación del Estado en Nicaragua, 1860–1930. Managua, Nicaragua: Fondo Editorial, Banco Central de Nicaragua, 1992.

                                       Shannon Bellamy

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Martínez, Tomás (1820–1873)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . 22 Sep. 2019 <>.

"Martínez, Tomás (1820–1873)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . (September 22, 2019).

"Martínez, Tomás (1820–1873)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved September 22, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.