National assembly of Iran.
The history of a representative, elected assembly in Iran dates to the Constitutional Revolution, when the Majles was stipulated as the legislative branch of government in the constitution. The first elections were held in the summer of 1906, and the new Majles convened in October. Except for a brief period from its inception to the end of World War I, and again from 1941 to 1953, the Majles in monarchical Iran did not enjoy a significant degree of autonomy, and it exercised little initiative in the nation's political life. Women gained suffrage in 1963, and twenty-four assemblies met from 1906 to 1978.
After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the Majles al-Shura-ye Melli (National Assembly) was renamed the Majles al-Shura-ye Islami (Islamic Assembly), and it has played a prominent role in political affairs. The first postrevolutionary Majles opened on 28 May 1980 and elected Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani as its speaker. Its most significant act was the impeachment of the Islamic Republic's first president, Abolhasan Bani Sadr, in June 1981. After Rafsanjani became president in 1989, Mehdi Karrubi succeeded him as speaker of the Majles, a position he held until 1992, when he failed to win a seat in that year's elections. Ali Akbar Nateq-e Nuri then served as speaker until he was defeated in the 2000 Majles elections. Karrubi returned to the Majles in those elections and again was elected as speaker.
see also bani sadr, abolhasan; constitutional revolution; iranian revolution (1979); rafsanjani, ali akbar hashemi.
Abrahamian, Ervand. Iran between Two Revolutions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982.
Moslem, Mehdi. Factional Politics in Post-Khomeini Iran. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2002.
updated by eric hooglund
"Majles al-Shura." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 22, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/majles-al-shura
"Majles al-Shura." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved February 22, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/majles-al-shura
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.