Skip to main content

García Calderón, Francisco (1834–1905)

García Calderón, Francisco (1834–1905)

Francisco García Calderón (b. 1834; d. 1905), a Peruvian lawyer and legal historian. Author of a compilation of nineteenth-century Peruvian law, he was forced to resign as minister of finance in the administration of José Balta when he could not end Peru's financial dependence on its guano consignees. He achieved prominence and notoriety during the War of the Pacific (1879–1883). A committee of wealthy Limeños elected him president in early 1881, when they anticipated high Chilean occupation taxes. He began the negotiations that eventually led to the Treaty of Ancón (1883) that ended the war. During the negotiations, García Calderón adamantly refused to cede the southern departments of Tacna and Arica to Chile. Yet he underwent severe criticism from former president Nicolás de Piérola, who resisted the Chileans from his position in Ayacucho, and from General Andrés A. Cáceres, who fought on in the central highlands. Fearing a rally of resistance among Peruvians and interference from the United States on the issue of cession of territory, the Chileans seized the president and imprisoned him in Santiago until the end of the war.

See alsoPeru: Peru Since Independence; War of the Pacific.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

David Werlich, Peru: A Short History (1978).

William F. Sater, Chile and the War of the Pacific (1986), esp. pp. 206-217.

Additional Bibliography

Guerra Martinière, Margarita. La ocupación de Lima, 1881–1883. Lima, Perú: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Dirección Académica de Investigación, Instituto Riva-Agüero, 1996.

                                     Vincent Peloso

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"García Calderón, Francisco (1834–1905)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"García Calderón, Francisco (1834–1905)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/garcia-calderon-francisco-1834-1905

"García Calderón, Francisco (1834–1905)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved September 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/garcia-calderon-francisco-1834-1905

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.