Frevo, frenetic carnival dance music of northeastern Brazil. The frevo first appeared around the turn of the twentieth century among newly formed carnival clubs of black and mestizo urban workers in Recife, Pernambuco. The acrobatic dance steps done to the frevo developed largely from the Capoeira (an Afro-Brazilian athletic dance), and the music itself grew out of the marches and polkas of military-style marching bands that accompanied Carnival parades. The frevo quickly became a mainstay of the Recife carnival, and several distinct substyles developed, including the frevo de rua, instrumental street music played by marching bands; frevo de bloco, played by small string and percussion ensembles with a female chorus; and frevo canção, middle-class sentimental songs involving a lead singer, a chorus, and a brass, woodwind, and percussion band. City-sponsored competitions take place each year in Recife, and numerous recordings have been released. Beginning in the 1950s, frevo was incorporated into the carnival of Salvador, Bahia, by trios elétricos (electric trios) using electric guitars and drums. This electric frevo baiano (Bahian frevo) entered mainstream Brazilian popular music in the 1970s and 1980s via such pop star luminaries as Caetano Veloso and Moraes Moreira. Alceu Valença and other northeastern popular musicians have added Recife-style frevos to their repertoires.
Valdemar De Oliveira, Frevo, capoeira e passo (1971); Fred De Góes, O país do carnaval elétrico (1982).
Araújo, Rita de Cássia Barbosa de. Festas: máscaras do tempo: Entrudo, mascarada e frevo no carnaval do Recife. Recife, PE: Fundacão de Cultura Cidade do Recife, 1996.
Carvalho, Nelly, et al. Dicionário do frevo. Recife, PE: Editora Universitária, UFPE, 2000.
Teles, José. Do frevo ao manguebeat. São Paulo, SP, Brasil: Editora 34, 2000.
Larry N. Crook
"Frevo." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 14, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/frevo
"Frevo." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved November 14, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/frevo
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.