Protectorate (English government)
Cromwell's first Parliament refused to ratify the constitution and proceeded to frame one of its own; he dissolved it in January 1655. Shortly afterwards, Penruddock's rising gave his military councillors a temporary ascendancy, and the result was the regime of the major-generals. These officers did not supersede the local magistracy in their eleven districts, but their duties went far beyond suppressing royalist conspiracy and they were much resented, not least for their inferior birth. Their regime was running down, however, long before Parliament terminated it by refusing to legitimize the levy on the royalist gentry (the ‘decimation’) which paid for it.
This second Protectorate Parliament (1656–8), from which the council excluded over 100 elected members, reflected a growing division between conservative civilians and supporters of the military. Led by the former, it presented Cromwell with a new constitution, the Humble Petition and Advice, naming him as king and restoring other more traditional ways. His senior officers strongly opposed it, but Cromwell accepted it, though without changing his title of Protector. Their influence thereafter diminished, and Lambert, author of the Instrument of Government, was forced into retirement after refusing the new councillor's oath. Cromwell resumed his policy of healing old wounds, but died on 3 September 1658. His son Richard's Protectorate lasted only eight months, not so much because he was personally inadequate—his one Parliament gave his government more support than either of Oliver's had done—as because the disgruntled military ‘grandees’ were bent on recovering their old political influence. By bringing Richard down, they wrecked the ‘Good Old Cause’ that they professed to serve.
Protectorate (in English history)
Protectorate, in English history, name given to the English government from 1653 to 1659. Following the English civil war and the execution of Charles I, England was declared (1649) a commonwealth under the rule of the Rump Parliament. In 1653, however, Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Rump, replacing it with the Nominated, or Barebone's, Parliament (see Barebone, Praise-God), and when the latter proved ineffectual, he accepted (Dec., 1653) the constitutional document entitled the Instrument of Government, which had been drawn up by a group of army officers. By its terms, Cromwell assumed the title lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland and agreed to share his power with a council of state and a Parliament of one house. However, although Parliament met regularly, Cromwell's protectorate was a virtual dictatorship resting on the power of the army. After a royalist uprising, he divided (1655) the country into 11 military districts, each under the administration of a major general who enforced the rigidly puritanical laws and collected taxes. Toleration was extended to Jews and all non-Anglican Protestants, but not to Roman Catholics. In 1654, the first of the Dutch Wars was brought to a close and English sea power turned against Spain. In the Humble Petition and Advice of 1657, Parliament offered Cromwell the throne (which he refused), allowed him to name a successor, and set up an upper house to be chosen by him; but this attempt at constitutional revision had little practical effect on the government. Richard Cromwell succeeded as lord protector on the death of his father in 1658, but he was unable to control the army and resigned in May, 1659. The Rump was recalled and the Commonwealth resumed, and after a period of chaos Gen. George Monck recalled the Long Parliament and brought about the Restoration of Charles II.
See S. R. Gardiner, History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate (4 vol., 1903, repr. 1965); C. Firth, The Last Years of the Protectorate (2 vol., 1909; repr. 1964); I. Roots, Commonwealth and Protectorate: The English Civil War and Its Aftermath (1966).
protectorate (in international law)
protectorate, in international law, a relationship in which one state surrenders part of its sovereignty to another. The subordinate state is called a protectorate. The term covers a great variety of relations, but typically the protected state gives up all or part of its control over foreign affairs while retaining a large measure of independence in internal matters. The relation may originate when the dominant power threatens or uses force or when the subordinate sees advantages (usually military protection) in the arrangement. A protectorate is distinguishable from the relation of home country and colony, for the protected state retains its sovereignty (though often only nominally), its territory remains distinct from that of the protector, and its citizens do not become nationals of the protecting state. Initially, in most cases, the extent to which the dominant state may interfere in local affairs is governed by treaty; but since a protected state usually has no access to diplomatic channels, it is in a poor position to resist attempts at increased control. Protectorates in connection with large empires probably have existed from earliest times, and there are known instances in Greek and Roman history. In World War I, Great Britain made Egypt a protectorate. Before the abrogation (1934) of the Platt Amendment, Cuba was essentially a protectorate of the United States. Today no state formally has the status of a protectorate, but several quasi-protectorates do exist, including the Cook Islands, the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and Niue. The former trust territories of the United Nations (see trusteeship, territorial) were distinguished from protectorates in that they were being prepared for ultimate independence and that the control of the dominant state was subject to scrutiny by the UN Trusteeship Council.
The term protectorate evolved in the nineteenth century. It refers to a relationship in which a weaker state relinquishes the control of a portion or all of its international relations to a stronger state in return for protection. This relationship is a form of guardianship and the reciprocal rights and duties between the two states generally are delineated by treaty. The protected state is considered the "protectorate." In international law the protectorate still retains recognition as a state by other nations and may retain some of its state rights such as a right to diplomatic representation. The protectorate usually maintains control over its domestic affairs.
In the nineteenth century, protectorate relationships often preceded colonial expansion or, as in the case of the United States and Caribbean, aimed at preventing foreign rivals from gaining a foothold in certain areas and upsetting a delicate balance of power. U.S. foreign policy toward the Caribbean from 1898 to 1933 is known as the protectorate era. The United States feared regional instability would lead to non-U.S. foreign intervention. The United States repeatedly used military force, dollars, and custom's controls to safeguard countries such as Puerto Rico, Haiti, Cuba, and Latin American nations, keeping them solvent and stable.
pro·tec·tor·ate / prəˈtektərət/ • n. 1. a state that is controlled and protected by another. ∎ the relationship between a state of this kind and the one that controls it: a French protectorate had been established over Tunis. 2. (usu. Protectorate) hist. the position or period of office of a Protector, esp. that in England of Oliver and Richard Cromwell.
Mowl & and Earnshaw (1995);
Summerson (ed.) (1993)
A form of international guardianship that arises underinternational lawwhen a weaker state surrenders by treaty the management of some or all of its international affairs to a stronger state.
The extent of the reciprocal rights and duties between the protecting state and the protected state depends upon the terms of the treaty and the conditions under which other states have recognized the protectorate. Although it loses some of its independence, the protected state still exists as a state in international law and may avail itself of some of the rights of a state. Its diplomatic representatives may still enjoy normal immunities within the courts of other states, for instance, and a treaty concluded by the protecting state with a third state is not necessarily binding on the protected state.