Skip to main content
Select Source:

Gondwana

Gondwana A former supercontinent of the southern hemisphere from which South America, Africa, India, Australasia, and Antarctica are derived. Their earlier connection explains why related groups of plants and animals are found in more than one of the now widely separated southern land masses; examples include the conifer Araucaria (monkey puzzle, Chile pine, hoop pine, etc.) common to South America and Australia. Throughout Gondwana there existed floristic assemblages represented by a few species of fossil plants that are thought to have grown in a cold climate. This view is supported by palaeomagnetic evidence and by indications of glaciation in South America, Africa, India, and Australia, which must then have been in a much higher latitude than they are today.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gondwana." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gondwana." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/gondwana

"Gondwana." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved February 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/gondwana

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Gondwana

Gondwana A former supercontinent of the southern hemisphere from which S. America, Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica are derived. Their earlier connection explains why related groups of plants and animals are found in more than one of the now widely separated southern land masses; examples include the monkey-puzzle tree (Araucaria) common to S. America and Australia. Throughout Gondwana there existed floristic assemblages represented by a few species of plants that are thought to have grown in a cold climate. This view is supported by indications of glaciation in S. America, Africa, India, and Australia, which must then have been in a much higher latitude than they are today.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gondwana." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gondwana." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/gondwana-0

"Gondwana." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved February 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/gondwana-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Gondwana

Gondwana a vast continental area believed to have existed in the southern hemisphere and to have resulted from the break-up of Pangaea in Mesozoic times. It comprised the present Arabia, Africa, South America, Antarctica, Australia, and the peninsula of India.

The name is recorded from the late 19th century, originally denoting any of a series of rocks in India, especially fluviatile shales and sandstones, from the name of a region in central northern India, from Sanskrit goṇḍavana ‘forest of Gond’.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gondwana." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gondwana." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/gondwana

"Gondwana." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved February 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/gondwana

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Gondwana

Gondwana A former supercontinent of the southern hemisphere from which S. America, Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica are derived. Their earlier connection explains why related groups of plants and animals are found in more than one of the now widely separated southern land masses; examples include the Dipnoi (lungfish) common to S. America, Africa, and Australia, and the monkey-puzzle tree (Araucaria) common to S. America and Australia.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gondwana." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gondwana." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/gondwana-1

"Gondwana." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved February 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/gondwana-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.