Skip to main content

Gödels incompleteness theorems

Gödel's incompleteness theorems Two fundamental theorems in mathematical logic, proved by Kurt Gödel in 1931. The first concerns the formalization of basic arithmetic. Gödel showed that, in any logical system powerful enough to express arithmetical operations, there must exist sentences that are neither provable nor refutable in the logical system. In consequence there exist statements about arithmetic that, while true, cannot be proved in the logical system. The second theorem states that no logical system can be powerful enough to provide a proof of its own consistency. These discoveries marked a turning-point in our understanding of formal reasoning. For example, they forced the abandonment of “Hilbert's program”, i.e. of the search for a provably consistent and complete formal basis for the whole of mathematics itself.

Equally significant are the proof methods that Gödel used. One device was to encode logical formulas as numbers (see Gödel numbering), so that manipulations of formulas could be “programmed” as numerical computations. (This early exercise in numerical data representation and programming also marked the beginning of recursive function theory.) The other device was to use this numerical encoding to produce a formula that in effect asserts its own unprovability. The idea is seen in statements such as “this sentence is false”, the Cretan liar paradox, and Russell's paradox. Gödel's construction however is formal: the reference to “this sentence” is handled by the numerical encoding, without any need for vague English words. A relationship exists with the paradoxical combinator, while a similar approach can be used to show the undecidability of the halting problem as well as many results in complexity theory, where Gödel numbering is applied to Turing machines rather than logical formulas.

Gödel is also responsible for a completeness theorem.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gödels incompleteness theorems." A Dictionary of Computing. . 24 Mar. 2019 <>.

"Gödels incompleteness theorems." A Dictionary of Computing. . (March 24, 2019).

"Gödels incompleteness theorems." A Dictionary of Computing. . Retrieved March 24, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.