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erythroblastosis (i-rith-roh-blas-toh-sis) n. the presence in the blood of erythroblasts. e. foetalis a severe but rare haemolytic anaemia affecting newborn infants due to destruction of the infant's red blood cells by factors present in the mother's serum. It is usually caused by incompatibility of the rhesus blood groups between mother and infant (see rhesus factor).