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Noll, Mark A. 1946-

Noll, Mark A. 1946-

(Mark Allan Noll)

PERSONAL:

Born July 18, 1946, in Iowa City, IA; son of Francis Arthur (an engineer) and Evelyn Jean Noll; married Ruth Margaret Packer, 1969; children: Mary Constance, David Luther, Robert Francis. Education: Wheaton College, B.A., 1968; University of Iowa, M.A., 1970; Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, M.A., 1972; Vanderbilt University, M.A., 1974, Ph.D., 1975. Religion: Reformed Protestant.

ADDRESSES:

Office—Department of History, 219 O'Shaugnessy, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556. E-mail—[email protected]

CAREER:

Historian, educator, and author. Trinity College, Deerfield, IL, assistant professor of history, 1975-78; Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL, associate professor, 1978-84, professor of history, beginning 1984, became McManis Professor of Christian Thought, Institute for the Study of American Evangelicals, cofounder; University of Notre Dame, Francis A. McAnaney Professor of History, 2006—. Visiting professor at universities and colleges, including Harvard Divinity School, University of Chicago Divinity School, Regent College, Vancouver, and Westminister Theological Seminary; Jonathan Edwards Center, Yale University, board member.

MEMBER:

American Historical Association, Organization of American Historians, American Society of Church History, Conference on Faith and History.

AWARDS, HONORS:

National Humanities Medal, awarded by President George W. Bush and the National Endowment for the Humanities; named one of America's twenty-five most influential evangelicals, Time, 2005.

WRITINGS:

Christians in the American Revolution, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 1977.

(With Nathan Hatch and John Woodbridge) The Gospel in America: Themes in the Story of American Evangelicals, Zondervan (Grand Rapids, MI), 1979.

(Editor, with Nathan Hatch, and contributor) The Bible in America, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1982.

(Editor, with others, and contributor) Eerdmans Handbook to Christianity in America, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 1983.

(Editor) The Princeton Theology, 1812-1921, Baker Books (Ada, MI), 1983.

Between Faith and Criticism: Evangelicals, Scholarship, and the Bible in America, Harper (New York, NY), 1986, expanded edition, Baker Books (Ada, MI), 1991.

(Editor, with Roger Lundin) Voices from the Heart: Four Centuries of American Piety, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 1987.

One Nation under God? Christian Faith and Political Action in America, Harper (New York, NY), 1988.

(Editor, with David Wells) Christian Faith and Practice in the Modern World: Theology from an Evangelical Point of View, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 1988.

Princeton and the Republic, 1768-1822: The Search for a Christian Enlightenment in the Era of Samuel Stanhope Smith, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 1989.

(With Nathan Hatch and George Marsden) The Search for Christian America, Crossway (Wheaton, IL), 1983, revised edition, Helmers & Howard (Colorado Springs, CO), 1989.

(Editor) Religion and American Politics: From the Colonial Period to the 1980s, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1989.

(With Howard Kee and others) Christianity: A Social and Cultural History, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1991.

(Editor) Confessions and Catechisms of the Reformation, Baker Books (Ada, MI), 1991.

A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 1992.

(Editor, with George A. Rawlyk) Amazing Grace: Evangelicalism in Australia, Britain, Canada, and the United States, Baker Books (Ada, MI), 1993.

(Editor) Evangelicalism: Comparative Studies of Popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles, and Beyond, 1700-1990, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1994.

(Editor, with David N. Livingstone) What Is Darwinism?, and Other Writings on Science and Religion, Baker Books (Ada, MI), 1994.

The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 1994.

Adding Cross to Crown: The Political Significance of Christ's Passion, Baker Books (Ada, MI), 1996.

Seasons of Grace, Baker Books (Ada, MI), 1997.

(Editor, with others) Evangelicals and Science in Historical Perspective, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1999.

(Editor, with D.G. Hart) Dictionary of the Presbyterian and Reformed Tradition in America, InterVarsity Press (Downers Grove, IL), 1999.

(Editor, with Larry Eskridge) More Money, More Ministry: Money and Evangelicals in Recent North American History, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 2000.

(Editor, with Ronald F. Thiemann) Where Shall My Wond'ring Soul Begin? The Landscape of Evangelical Piety and Thought, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 2000.

American Evangelical Christianity: An Introduction, Blackwell (Oxford, England), 2000.

Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity, Baker Books (Ada, MI), 2000.

(Editor, with David N. Livingstone) Evolution, Scripture, and Science, Baker Books (Ada, MI), 2000.

Protestants in America, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2000.

The Old Religion in a New World: The History of North American Christianity, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 2002.

The Work We Have to Do: A History of Protestants in America, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2002.

(Editor) God and Mammon: Protestants, Money, and the Market, 1790-1860, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2002.

America's God: From Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2002.

The Rise of Evangelicalism: The Age of Edwards, Whitefield, and the Wesleys, InterVarsity Press (Downers Grove, IL), 2003.

(Consulting editor, with others) Biographical Dictionary of Evangelicals InterVarsity Press (Downers Grove, IL), 2003.

(Editor, with Richard J. Mouw) Wonderful Words of Life: Hymns in American Protestant History and Theology, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 2004.

(Editor, with Edith L. Blumhofer) Singing the Lord's Song in a Strange Land: Hymody in the History of North American Protestantism, University of Alabama Press (Tuscaloosa, AL), 2004.

(With Carolyn Nystrom) Is the Reformation Over? An Evangelicalism Assessment of Contemporary Roman Catholicism, Baker Academic (Grand Rapids, MI), 2005.

The Civil War as a Theological Crisis, University of North Carolina Press (Chapel Hill, NC), 2006.

(With Edith L. Blumhofer) Sing Them Over Again To Me, University of Alabama Press (Tuscaloosa, AL), 2006.

Contributor to works by others and to history and theology journals. Associate editor, Christian Scholar's Review, 1978-83; member of editorial committee, Reformed Journal, 1983-90.

SIDELIGHTS:

Mark A. Noll is a leading religious scholar. He has been recognized by Time magazine as one of America's twenty-five most influential evangeli- cals and was awarded a National Humanities Medal by President George W. Bush and the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Noll has written or edited many books about the history of Christianity, and in particular American evangelicalism, and is the author of the encyclopedic A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada. Kevin A. Miller wrote of this book in Christianity Today: "Noll has given us a fine narrative history, probably the best available of Christianity in North America." Many scholars have since come to consider A History of Christianity to be the authoritative text on the subject. In addition, "Noll has surely become our leading teacher-historian of American Christianity," Ralph C. Wood declared in First Things.

Also notable among Noll's books is The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind, about which the author succinctly noted: "There is not much of an evangelical mind." Noll, an evangelical himself, traces the development of evangelical thought from its roots in the teachings of Catholic intellectuals St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas through John Calvin and the New England Puritan theologian Jonathan Edwards. In what Noll calls the Evangelical Enlightenment, Edwards and others encouraged Christians to bring rationality, critical thought, and other Enlightenment values to bear on their religion. However, in the late nineteenth century, under increasing pressure from proponents of evolution and the new critical Biblical scholarship emanating from Germany, many evangelical Christians reverted to dogmatic assertions of faith. This anti-intellectual position, which came to be known as fundamentalism, remains a powerful strain in American evangelical thought and continues to hamper evangelical scholarship. Noll's "breathtaking panorama of evangelical history," as a Publishers Weekly contributor described it, "is a brilliant study by … a first-rate Evangelical mind."

Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity, the most sweeping of Noll's histories, stretches from the fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. to the Edinburgh Missionary Conference of 1910. Journal of Church and State contributor James A. Patterson noted the "considerable analytical skills" and "acute sensibility to cultural, political and social history" which Noll brings to his subject. Noll ranges far beyond mere doctrinal study, examining church-state relations and the impact secular events such as the coronation of Charlemagne and the French Revolution had on Christianity.

Noll has also written the critically praised historical overviews The Old Religion in the New World: The History of North American Christianity and American Evangelical History. "Noll upholds his reputation for clear, accessible prose and admirably organizing mountains of historical material" in The Old Religion in a New World, Steven Schroeder noted in a review for Booklist, while C. Robert Nixon praised the same book as a "clear overview of a complex subject."

In American Evangelical Christianity, Noll studies the position of Evangelical faiths in U.S. culture, politics, and religious life. He offers readers "not only an attractive portrayal of evangelical beliefs and practices but an accurate one as well," commented P.C. Kemeny in a review for Journal of Religion. Praising the work for helping to dispel some generally held assumptions about evangelical Christians, Kemeny added that Noll also "provides a much-needed historical corrective to the fictions that certain Evangelicals propagate with regard to modern science and the founding of the United States." "In the volume's most provocative chapter, ‘Evangelical Politics: A Better Way,’ Noll challenges the ‘Religious Right’ to reconsider the significance of the cross of Christ for political action. Too often, he argues, Evangelicals demonize their political opponents and forget that Christ died for them too."

America's God: From Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln, described as a "magisterial work" by a Publishers Weekly contributor, is a social history of Christian theology in America from colonial times to the Civil War, in which Noll notes the impact of progress, such as the printing press, on theology and theology's impact on the politics of the time. Church History reviewer Laurie F. Maffly-Kipp described the volume as being "a virtual tour de force, and it will be an indispensable reference tool for the study of American theology for many years to come. Noll has read—and has even had time to think about—nearly everything, and his erudition shines. His clear and succinct exposition of the organizational development of American evangelicalism after the Revolution is a wonderful piece of work, and that section only sets the context for his real interest in intellectual change. When he does reach the theology itself, he illuminates both the obscure and the downright tedious, along with the gems."

The Rise of Evangelicalism: The Age of Edwards, Whitefield, and the Wesleys is a study of the period from 1734 to 1738, during which time Jonathan Edwards led his followers in Northampton, Massachusetts, George Whitefield spoke to more Americans than any other speaker, and evangelicals, including John Wesley, formed the evangelical movement in London, England, which produced a large number of publishing houses. Books and Culture contributor David Hempton wrote: "One of the most engaging aspects of The Rise of Evangelicalism is Noll's shrewd identification of the roots of some of evangelicalism's most enduring features. These include the ‘revolutionary development’ of a lasting evangelical presence among African Americans pioneered by Moravians, Baptists, and Methodists; the process of globalization facilitated by the formation of the great evangelical missionary societies at the end of the 18th century (once again Moravians were the trailblazers); and evangelicalism's emphasis on individual religious experience, often to the neglect of any coherent social or corporate vision."

Noll wrote Is the Reformation Over? An Evangelicalism Assessment of Contemporary Roman Catholicism with journalist Carolyn Nystrom. It is a study of the changes in the Roman Catholic Church since Vatican II and an assessment of relations between evangelicalism and the Catholic Church. The study also examines how the former has taken on many of the qualities of the latter that it had found objectionable only decades earlier, including "the formalism, the anthropocentric worship, the power mongering, and the egotism" of the Church. A Publishers Weekly reviewer commented: "This willingness to see the proverbial beam in one's own eye is one of the great strengths of this book."

In an interview with Judy Valente for the PBS series Religion and Ethics, Noll defined Evangelical Protestant Christians: "Evangelicals usually stress conversion to Jesus Christ. Evangelicals stress the authority of the Bible as their chief religious authority. Evangelicals are activist in some areas of life, principally in trying to share the good news about Jesus. And evangelicals usually stress the death of Christ and his resurrection as the key, central Christian teaching." Noll explained that there is no one group of evangelicals, noting that black evangelicals, which make up a substantial percentage of the community, are usually not counted with white, Asian, and Hispanic evangelicals. He also said the evangelicals are not as political as is sometimes assumed. When asked by Valente about the difference between evangelicals and fundamentalists, he replied: "Fundamentalists historically have been defined as those who are especially influenced by the revival traditions of the nineteenth century, especially influenced by the turn toward dispensational premillennialism as a theology in the late 19th century, and sometimes by their attitudes of separation and militancy toward the rest of the religious world and the rest of the world. Evangelical Christianity as a whole would include some fundamentalist tendencies, some fundamentalist groups, but probably most evangelicals would not want to be called fundamentalists themselves."

In projecting the future of evangelicalism, Noll told Valente: "For the years ahead, the greatest strengths of American evangelical Christianity have to be the bedrock qualities of Christian faith. The ways in which evangelicals adjust to society may be good, may be bad, may be indifferent, may be questionable in some ways, but to be a Christian of any sort, and certainly to be an evangelical Christian, is to remain confident in the work of God and Jesus Christ. So long as evangelicals are secure in that confidence, then whatever happens, they will be secure in the future."

Noll once told CA: "My writing arises out of my ‘callings’ as a historian and a Christian. Sometimes the vocations seem to get in the way of each other, but mostly it is a fruitful combination. The danger of moralizing in historical work and relativizing religion is always present. These are acceptable risks, given the intrinsic satisfaction of the task."

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

PERIODICALS

America, June 9, 1990, Christopher F. Mooney, review of Religion and American Politics: From the Colonial Period to the 1980s, pp. 589-590.

American Historical Review, October, 2000, Winton U. Solberg, review of Evangelicals and Science in Historical Perspective, pp. 1267-1268.

Atlantic Monthly, December, 2002, Benjamin Schwarz, review of America's God: From Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln, p. 126.

Baptist History and Heritage, summer-fall, 2003, Pamela Durso, review of The Old Religion in a New World: The History of North American Christianity, p. 110; winter, 2005, David W. Music, review of Wonderful Words of Life: Hymns in American Protestant History and Theology, p. 119.

Booklist, July, 1994, Ray Olson, review of The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind, pp. 1898-1899; October 1, 1996, Ray Olson, review of Adding Cross toCrown: The Political Significance of Christ's Passion, p. 305; December 1, 2001, Steven Schroeder, review of The Old Religion in a New World, p. 608.

Books and Culture, January-February, 2003, Martin E. Marty, review of America's God, p. 16; July-August, 2004, David Hempton, review of The Rise of Evangelicalism: The Age of Edwards, Whitefield, and the Wesleys, p. 29.

Canadian Historical Review, June, 1995, review of Amazing Grace: Evangelicalism in Australia, Britain, Canada, and the United States, pp. 258-290.

Catholic Historical Review, April, 1990, Patrick N. Allitt, review of Religion and American Politics: From the Colonial Period to the 1980s, pp. 403-404; July, 1993, Edwin S. Gaustad, review of A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada, pp. 565-567; July, 1995, C. Allyn Russell, review of Amazing Grace, pp. 405-406; October, 2006, Jennifer Petrafesa McLaughlin, review of The Rise of Evangelicalism, p. 638.

Catholic Insight, June, 2006, James Hanrahan, review of Is the Reformation Over? An Evangelicalism Assessment of Contemporary Roman Catholicism, p. 44.

Choice, January, 1995, D. Jacobsen, review of The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind, p. 806; December, 1999, D. Jacobsen, review of Evangelicals and Science in Historical Perspective, p. 738; May, 2001, D.W. Germ, review of American Evangelical Christianity: An Introduction, p. 1644.

Christian Century, September 28, 1988, Richard Quebedueax, review of One Nation under God? Christian Faith and Political Action in America, pp. 848-849; December 13, 1989, Theodore Dwight Bozeman, review of Princeton and the Republic, 1768-1822, pp. 1178-1179; June 13, 1990, Charles K. Piehl, review of Religion and American Politics, pp. 609-610; November 18, 1992, Robert T. Handy, review of A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada, pp. 1067-1069; December 4, 2002, Clark Gilpin, review of America's God, p. 40; February 1, 2006, Stephen M. Marini, review of Wonderful Words of Life, p. 53; May 30, 2006, Todd Shy, review of The Civil War as a Theological Crisis, p. 34.

Christianity Today, May 23, 1980, Richard L. Troutman, review of The Gospel in America: Themes in the Story of American Evangelicals, pp. 36-37; February 6, 1987, Donald K. McKim, review of Between Faith and Criticism: Evangelicals, Scholarship, and the Bible in America, pp. 50-51; April 3, 1987, review of Voices from the Heart: Four Centuries of American Piety, p. 32; May 12, 1989, Richard V. Pierard, review of One Nation under God?, pp. 62-63; June 18, 1990, John G. Stackhouse, Jr., review of Princeton and the Republic, 1768-1822, pp. 48-49; June 21, 1993, Kevin A. Miller, review of A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada, pp. 38-39; December 6, 1999, review of Dictionary of the Presbyterian and Reformed Tradition in America, p. 91; August, 2006, Elesha Coffman, review of The Civil War as a Theological Crisis, p. 66.

Church History, December, 1990, Marvin Bergman, review of Princeton and the Republic, 1768-1822, pp. 569-570; September, 1995, Phyllis D. Airhart, review of Evangelicalism: Comparative Studies of Popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles, and Beyond, 1700-1990, pp. 535-536; December, 1998, Richard V. Pierard, review of Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity, p. 844; September, 2003, Christine Leigh Heyrman, review of America's God, p. 617, Grant Wacker, review of America's God, p. 620, E. Brooks Holifield, review of America's God, p. 624, and Laurie F. Maffly-Kipp, review of America's God, p. 634; June, 2005, John Ogasapian, review of Wonderful Words of Life, p. 414; March, 2004, Stuart B. Jennings, review of God and Mammon: Protestants, Money, and the Market, 1790-1860, p. 226; December, 2006, E. Brooks Holifield, review of The Civil War as a Theological Crisis, p. 939.

Commonweal, November 4, 1994, Martin E. Marty, review of The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind, pp. 22-25; January 13, 2006, Brad S. Gregory, review of Is the Reformation Over?, p. 26.

Comparative Studies in Society and History, January, 1998, Jon H. Roberts, review of Evangelicalism, pp. 187-188.

First Things, October, 2001, Ralph C. Wood, review of American Evangelical Christianity, pp. 43-46; June-July, 2002, Philip Gleason, review of The Old Religion in a New World, p. 57; October, 2005, Geoffrey Wainwright, review of Is the Reformation Over?, 40.

Historian, autumn, 1990, Larry G. Bowman, review of Princeton and the Republic, 1768-1822, pp. 138-139.

Interpretation, April, 2005, Dewey D. Wallace, Jr., review of America's God, p. 204.

Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, December, 1989, Frank J. Lechner, review of One Nation under God?, p. 546; March, 1995, F. Maurice Ethridge, review of Evangelicalism, p. 130.

Journal of American History, December, 1990, Robert Booth Fowler, review of Religion and American Politics, pp. 987-988; September, 1994, Jay P. Dolan, review of A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada, pp. 628-629; June, 1995, Frank Lambert, review of Evangelicalism, pp. 199-200; June, 1996, Clyde Binfield, review of Amazing Grace, pp. 204-205.

Journal of Church and State, autumn, 1989, Michael Johnston, review of One Nation under God?, pp. 547-548; spring, 1990, David B. Calhoun, review of Princeton and the Republic, 1768-1822, pp. 418-420; autumn, 1990, David L. Salvaterra, review of Religion and American Politics, pp. 871-872; autumn, 1998, James A. Patterson, review of Turning Points, p. 901; spring, 2002, Lee Canipe, review of Protestants in America, p. 375; autumn, 2002, Charles McDaniel, review of God and Mammon, p. 834; winter, 2002, Marshall R. Johnston, review of American Evangelical Christianity, pp. 168-169; winter, 2003, Preston Jones, review of The Old Religion in a New World, p. 182; autumn, 2004, Don M. Shipley, Jr., review of The Rise of Evangelicalism, p. 897.

Journal of Ecclesiastical History, July, 1997, Bradley Longfield, review of The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind, pp. 498-507; July, 2002, Richard Carwardine, review of American Evangelical Christianity, p. 643.

Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, September, 1997, Patrick Rist, review of The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind, pp. 191-192; January, 2005, Henry D. Rack, review of The Rise of Evangelicalism, p. 183.

Journal of Law and Religion, winter-summer, 1990, Timothy Sherrat, review of One Nation under God? and Religion and American Politics, pp. 585-595; April, 2003, Albert Zambone, review of The Old Religion in a New World, p. 373.

Journal of Religion, April, 2002, P.C. Kemeny, review of American Evangelical Christianity; April, 2003, Peter W. Williams, review of The Old Religion in a New World, p. 266; April, 2005, Thomas S. Kidd, review of America's God, p. 293, and Jonathan R. Bear, review of Wonderful Words of Life, p. 322; October, 2005, Dee E. Andrews, review of The Rise of Evangelicalism, p. 660.

Journal of Religious History, October, 1997, review of Amazing Grace, pp. 361-363.

Journal of Southern History, November, 1991, G. Howard Miller, review of Princeton and the Republic, 1768-1822, pp. 725-726; May, 1995, Martin E. Marty, review of Evangelicalism, pp. 363-365.

Journal of the Early Republic, spring, 1990, Mary R. Murrin, review of Princeton and the Republic, 1768-1822, pp. 80-81; summer, 1990, Anne M. Boylan, review of Religion and American Politics, pp. 259-260; May, 2005, David Stricklin, review of Wonderful Words of Life, p. 508.

Library Journal, April 1, 1987, Elise Chase, review of Voices from the Heart, p. 154; November 1, 1992, C. Robert Nixon, review of A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada, p. 91; October 15, 1997, George Westerlund, review of Turning Points, p. 66; December, 2001, C. Robert Nixon, review of The Old Religion in a New World, p. 133; November 1, 2002, C. Robert Nixon, review of America's God, p. 96; July, 2005, David I. Fulton, review of Is the Reformation Over?, p. 138.

National Catholic Reporter, March 18, 1983, Jack Dick, review of The Bible in America, p. 13; February 10, 2006, Charlene Spretnak, review of Is the Reformation Over?, p. 1.

National Review, July 18, 2005, Michael Potemra, review of Is the Reformation Over?, p. 44.

Presidential Studies Quarterly, fall, 1990, E. Brooks Holifield, review of Religion and American Politics, pp. 850-852.

Publishers Weekly, December 18, 1987; June 13, 1994, review of The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind, p. 33; October 14, 1996, review of Adding Cross to Crown, p. 76; October 27, 1997, review of Turning Points, p. 69; May 15, 2000, review of Where Shall My Wond'ring Soul Begin? The Landscape of Evangelical Piety and Thought, p. 110; October 16, 2000, review of More Money, More Ministry: Money and Evangelicals in Recent North American History, p. 69; November 26, 2001, review of The Old Religion in a New World, p. 58; October 21, 2002, review of America's God, p. 71; May 16, 2005, review of Is the Reformation Over?, p. 57; February 27, 2006, review of The Civil War as a Theological Crisis, p. 57.

School Library Journal, February, 2001, Elizabeth M. Reardon, review of Protestants in America, p. 137.

Theology, September-October, 2000, John Wolffe, review of Evangelicals and Science in Historical Perspective, pp. 389-390; May-June, 2001, D.W. Bebbington, review of Where Shall My Wond'ring Soul Begin?, pp. 227-228.

Theological Studies, December, 2003, Dolores Liptak, review of The Old Religion in a New World, p. 880; September, 2006, Thomas P. Rausch, review of Is the Reformation Over?, p. 684.

Theology Today, April, 1989, William Johnson Everett, review of One Nation under God?, pp. 87-88; July, 1990, James H. Moorhead, review of Princeton and the Republic, 1768-1822, pp. 188-189.

U.S. Catholic, October, 1988, Gerald M. Costello, review of One Nation under God?, pp. 48-51.

William & Mary Quarterly, July, 1990, review of Princeton and the Republic, 1768-1822, pp. 422-444.

ONLINE

Religion and Ethics Online,http://www.pbs.org/ (April 16, 2004), transcript of Judy Valente interview.

Wheaton College Web site,http://www.wheaton.edu/ (February 23, 2007), biography.

University of Notre Dame Department of History Web site,http://history.nd.edu/ (February 23, 2007), brief biography

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