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Bova, Ben 1932–

BOVA, Ben 1932–

(Benjamin William Bova)

PERSONAL:

Born November 8, 1932, in Philadelphia, PA; son of Benjamin Pasquale (a tailor) and Giove Bova; married Rosa Cucinotta, November 28, 1953 (divorced, 1974); married Barbara Berson Rose, June 28, 1974; children: (first marriage) Michael Francis, Regina Marie. Education: Temple University, B.S., 1954; State University of New York—Albany, M.A., 1987; California Coast University, Ph.D., 1996. Hobbies and other interests: History, anthropology, fencing, music, astronomy.

CAREER:

Writer, editor, and marketer. Upper Darby News, Upper Darby, PA, editor, 1953-56; Martin Aircraft Co., Baltimore, MD, technical editor on Vanguard Project, 1956-58; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, screenwriter for physical science study committee, 1958-59; Avco-Everett Research Laboratory, Everett, MA, marketing manager, 1960-71; Analog, New York, NY, editor, 1971-78; Omni, New York, NY, fiction editor, 1978-80, editorial director, 1980-81, vice president, 1981-82. Teacher of science fiction at Harvard University and of science fiction and film at the Hayden Planetarium. Science and technology consultant, CBS Morning News television program, 1982-84. Served on U.S. Congressional panels of the Office of Technology Assessment. Lecturer at universities and businesses. Science consultant to motion picture and television studios.

MEMBER:

National Space Society (president emeritus), Science Fiction Writers of America (past president), PEN International, American Association for the Advancement of Science (fellow), British Interplanetary Society (fellow), Free Space Society (honorary chairman), National Space Club, Planetary Society, Nature Conservancy, New York Academy of Sciences, Explorers Club, Amateur Fencer's League of America, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Arizona Astronomy Board.

AWARDS, HONORS:

The Milky Way Galaxy, The Fourth State of Matter, The Beauty of Light, and Welcome to Moonbase! were named Best Science Books of the Year by the American Library Association; Hugo Award for best editor, World Science Fiction Society, 1973-77 and 1979; E.E. Smith Memorial Award, New England Science Fiction Society, 1974; named distinguished alumnus, Temple University, 1981; alumni fellowship, Temple University, 1982; Balrog Award, 1983; Inkpot Award, 1985; Isaac Asimov Memorial Award, Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, 1996.

WRITINGS:

science fiction

The Star Conquerors (for young people), Winston (Philadelphia, PA), 1959.

Star Watchman (for young people; also see below), Holt (New York, NY), 1964.

The Weathermakers (for young people), Holt (New York, NY), 1967.

Out of the Sun (for young people), Holt (New York, NY), 1968.

The Dueling Machine (for young people; also see below), Holt (New York, NY), 1969.

Escape! (for young people), Holt (New York, NY), 1970.

Exiled from Earth (for young people; first book in trilogy; also see below), Dutton (New York, NY), 1971.

THX 1138 (adapted from the screenplay of the same title by George Lucas and Walter Murch), Paperback Library (New York, NY), 1971.

Flight of Exiles (for young people; second book in trilogy; also see below), Dutton (New York, NY), 1972.

As on a Darkling Plain, Walker (New York, NY), 1972.

When the Sky Burned, Walker (New York, NY), 1972.

The Winds of Altair (for young people), Dutton (New York, NY), 1973.

Forward in Time (short stories), Walker (New York, NY), 1973.

(With Gordon R. Dickson) Gremlins, Go Home! (for young people; also see below), St. Martin's (New York, NY), 1974.

End of Exile (for young people; third book in trilogy; also see below), Dutton (New York, NY), 1975.

The Starcrossed, Chilton (Radnor, PA), 1975.

City of Darkness (for young people), Scribner (New York, NY), 1976.

Millennium, Random House (New York, NY), 1976.

The Multiple Man, Bobbs-Merrill (Indianapolis, IN), 1976.

Colony, Pocket Books (New York, NY), 1978.

Maxwell's Demons (short stories), Baronet (New York, NY), 1978.

Kinsman, Dial (New York, NY), 1979.

The Exiles Trilogy (contains Exiled from Earth, Flight of Exiles, and End of Exile), Berkley (New York, NY), 1980.

Voyagers, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1981.

Test of Fire, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1982.

Orion, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1984.

Escape Plus (short stories), Tor Books (New York, NY), 1984.

Privateers, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1985.

Voyagers II: The Alien Within, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1986.

The Kinsman Saga, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1987.

Vengeance of Orion, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1988.

Peacekeepers, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1988.

Cyberbooks, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1989.

Future Crime, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1990.

Orion in the Dying Time, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1990.

Voyagers III: Star Brothers, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1990.

(With Bill Pogue) The Trikon Deception, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1992.

(With A.J. Austin) To Save the Sun, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1992.

Triumph, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1993.

Challenges (short stories), Tor Books (New York, NY), 1993.

Empire Builders, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1993.

Sam Gunn, Unlimited, Bantam (New York, NY), 1993.

Orion and the Conqueror, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1994.

(With A.J. Austin) To Fear the Light, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1994.

The Watchmen (contains Star Watchman and The Dueling Machine), Baen Books, 1994.

Death Dream, Bantam (New York, NY), 1994.

Orion among the Stars, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1995.

Brothers, Bantam (New York, NY), 1996.

Moonrise, Avon (New York, NY), 1996.

Twice Seven (short stories), Avon (New York, NY), 1998.

Sam Gunn Forever, Avon (New York, NY), 1998.

Moonwar, Avon (New York, NY), 1998.

Hour of the Gremlins (contains Gremlins, Go Home!, cowritten with Gordon R. Dickson, Hour of the Horde, and Wolfing, both written by Gordon R. Dickson), Simon & Schuster, 2002.

The Green Trap, Forge (New York, NY), 2006.

"grand tour" series

Mars, Bantam (New York, NY), 1992.

Return to Mars, Avon (New York, NY), 1999.

Venus, Tor Books (New York, NY), 2000.

Jupiter, Tor Books (New York, NY), 2001.

Saturn, Tor Books (New York, NY), 2003.

Tales of the Grand Tour, Tor Books (New York, NY), 2004.

Mercury, Tor Books (New York, NY), 2005.

Titan, Tor Books (New York, NY), 2005.

"asteroid wars" series

The Precipice, Tor Books (New York, NY), 2001.

The Rock Rats, Tor Books (New York, NY), 2002.

The Silent War, Tor Books (New York, NY), 2004.

Powersat, Tor Books (New York, NY), 2005.

nonfiction

The Milky Way Galaxy: Man's Exploration of the Stars, Holt (New York, NY), 1961.

Giants of the Animal World (for young people), Whitman Publishing (Racine, WI), 1962.

Reptiles since the World Began (for young people), Whitman Publishing (Racine, WI), 1964.

The Uses of Space (for young people), Holt (New York, NY), 1965.

In Quest of Quasars: An Introduction to Stars and Star-like Objects (for young people), Crowell (New York, NY), 1970.

Planets, Life, and LGM (for young people), Addison-Wesley (Reading, MA), 1970.

The Fourth State of Matter: Plasma Dynamics and Tomorrow's Technology, St. Martin's (New York, NY), 1971.

The Amazing Laser (for young people), Westminster Press (Philadelphia, PA), 1972.

The New Astronomies, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1972.

Starflight and Other Improbabilities (for young people; Junior Literary Guild selection), Westminster Press (Philadelphia, PA), 1973.

Man Changes the Weather (for young people), Addison-Wesley (Reading, MA), 1973.

(With Barbara Berson) Survival Guide for the Suddenly Single, St. Martin's (New York, NY), 1974.

The Weather Changes Man (for young people), Addison-Wesley (Reading, MA), 1974.

Workshops in Space (for young people), Dutton (New York, NY), 1974.

Through Eyes of Wonder (for young people), Addison-Wesley (Reading, MA), 1975.

Science: Who Needs It? (for young people), Westminster Press (Philadelphia, PA), 1975.

Notes to a Science Fiction Writer, Scribner (New York, NY), 1975.

Viewpoint, NESFA Press (Cambridge, MA), 1977.

(With Trudy E. Bell) Closeup: New Worlds, St. Martin's (New York, NY), 1977.

The Seeds of Tomorrow (for young people), McKay (New York, NY), 1977.

The High Road, Houghton (Boston, MA), 1981.

Vision of the Future: The Art of Robert McCall, Abrams (New York, NY), 1982.

Assured Survival: Putting the Star Wars Defense in Perspective, Houghton (Boston, MA), 1984, revised paperback edition published as Star Peace: Assured Survival, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1986.

Welcome to Moonbase!, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1987.

The Beauty of Light, Wiley (New York, NY), 1988.

(With Sheldon L. Glashow) Interactions: A Journey through the Mind of a Particle Physicist and the Matter of This World, Warner Books (New York, NY), 1988.

The Craft of Writing Science Fiction That Sells, Writer's Digest Books (Cincinnati, OH), 1994.

(With Anthony R. Lewis) Space Travel, Writer's Digest Books (Cincinnati, OH), 1997.

Immortality, Avon (New York, NY), 1998.

The Story of Light, Sourcebooks (Naperville, IL), 2001.

Faint Echoes, Distant Stars: The Science and Politics of Finding Life beyond Earth, Morrow (New York, NY), 2004.

collections including both short fiction and nonfiction

The Astral Mirror, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1985.

Prometheans, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1986.

Battle Station, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1987.

editor

The Many Worlds of SF, Dutton (New York, NY), 1971.

SFWA Hall of Fame, Volume II, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1973.

Analog 9, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1973.

The Analog Science Fact Reader, St. Martin's (New York, NY), 1974.

Analog Annual, Pyramid Publications (New York, NY), 1976.

Aliens, Futura (London, England), 1977.

The Best of Astounding, Baronet (New York, NY), 1977.

Analog Yearbook, Baronet (New York, NY), 1978.

The Best of Analog, Baronet (New York, NY), 1978.

(With Don Myrus) The Best of Omni Science Fiction, four volumes, Omni Publications International (New York, NY), 1980–82.

Best of the Nebulas, St. Martin's (New York, NY), 1989.

(With Byron Preiss) First Contact: The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, NAL Books (New York, NY), 1990.

The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Volume 2A, Tor Books (New York, NY), 2003.

other

Also author of introduction to James E. Orberg's The New Race for Space: The U.S. and Russia Leap to the Challenge for Unlimited Rewards, Stackpole (Harrisburg, PA), 1984. Editor of "Science in Science Fiction" series, Writer's Digest Books (Cincinnati, OH), 1996-97. Contributor to periodicals, including Psychology Today, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, USA Today, American Film, Astronomy, Science Digest, Smithsonian, and Writer. Member of editorial board of World Future Society and Tor Books, both beginning in 1982.

Bova's papers are housed in the David C. Paskow Collection of Temple University Libraries, Philadelphia, PA.

SIDELIGHTS:

Ben Bova has had a notable career in the field of science-oriented writing, authoring dozens of fiction and nonfiction books for adults and young people, editing several volumes of short stories, and presiding over the popular magazines Analog and Omni. His work reflects his belief that human virtue and scientific advances can combine to create a positive future. "At the core of all good [science fiction]," he wrote in Notes to a Science Fiction Writer, "is the very fundamental faith that we can use our intelligence to understand the world and solve our problems." A few years after Bova left Analog, author Spider Robinson recalled him fondly in the magazine as "one of the most moral" and "most socially responsible" of science fiction writers.

Bova was born during the Great Depression of the 1930s and grew up in a tough working-class neighbor-hood of southern Philadelphia. Life was hard for Bova's family—he even developed rickets because of malnutrition—but he soon discovered the beauty of science when he went with his schoolmates to a planetarium to learn about the stars. As Bova grew up he returned to the planetarium regularly, and he became an avid reader of books that ranged from astronomy texts to science fiction.

When he reached college age, though, Bova feared he might lack the strong math skills often needed for a science career, so he chose instead to study journalism at Philadelphia's Temple University. By the time he graduated in 1954, he was already a newspaper editor in the Philadelphia suburb of Upper Darby. The newspaper job brought Bova in contact with people in the air-and-space industry, and by 1956 he had become a technical writer for Martin Aircraft Company in Baltimore, Maryland. There he helped write reports based on data from the Vanguard Project, America's first effort to place a satellite in Earth's orbit. In 1958, Bova transferred to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he teamed with some of America's most prominent scientists to write a series of educational films for high school students. Two years later he joined the nearby Avco-Everett Research Laboratory, beginning as a science writer and rising to the post of marketing manager. The Avco job introduced Bova to state-of-the-art research in areas from lasers to artificial hearts.

Meanwhile, Bova gained increasing renown by writing about science for the general public—a kind of writing he finds particularly meaningful and enjoyable. His first novel for young readers, The Star Conquerors, appeared in 1959; others followed in rapid succession, including 1970's Escape!, a highly popular adventure about the rehabilitation of a juvenile delinquent in a detention center of the future. Bova wrote Escape! with an audience of reluctant readers in mind, and it has become a very popular book among young people who fall into that category, as well as with librarians seeking to interest young people who usually avoid reading. Bova's 1969 novel The Dueling Machine is an example of his interest in improving social welfare: the book projects a future in which peace is preserved galaxy-wide by a special police force and a "dueling machine" allows people to relieve their frustrations without hurting others. Bova also earned praise as the author of nonfiction books about science; The Milky Way Galaxy: Man's Exploration of the Stars, The Fourth State of Matter: Plasma Dynamics and Tomorrow's Technology, and Welcome to Moonbase! were all named science books of the year by the American Library Association. The Fourth State of Matter is about plasmas—the high-energy particles present in a flame or a bolt of lightning—and is based largely on research from the Avco laboratories.

In the 1970s, Bova began the career that has perhaps brought him the greatest acclaim in the world of science fiction: magazine editor. The year that The Fourth State of Matter was published, Bova became editor of Analog. Under his leadership it became "the leading science-fiction magazine of the decade," according to a contributor to the Dictionary of Literary Biography Yearbook, 1981. As a professional editor, Bova garnered an impressive five consecutive Hugo Awards from 1973 to 1977. Concerned that Analog was reaching too narrow an audience, Bova quit his post in 1978 but was soon convinced to become fiction editor of Omni, a more broadly based magazine of a similar nature, with a greater emphasis on science fact. By 1982, when Bova left Omni, he had risen to the post of editorial director and received yet another Hugo Award.

As his writing career continued, Bova addressed a greater number of his books to adults, but his underlying message—that human beings can use science to create a better future—remained much the same. Sometimes Bova used parallel works of fiction and nonfiction to comment on a particularly pressing social issue. The 1978 novel Colony shows a future Earth in which a world government, giant corporations, and terrorists battle each other for political power while ignoring the Earth's biggest problem—overpopulation. Bova offers a scientific solution: a huge space colony, built by mining the moon, that is able to provide new wealth for millions of people. Three years after Colony was published, Bova produced The High Road, a nonfiction book in which he again argued that the wealth to be found in space would ensure the survival of humanity on Earth. In his 1984 essay "Assured Survival," Bova defended the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), a proposal by U.S. President Ronald Reagan designed to protect the world from atomic attack by using orbiting laser guns to shoot down nuclear missiles when they are launched. While Reagan's opponents declared that SDI would be costly and ineffective, Bova, with his faith in science, argued that the system was not only workable but that it could usher in a new era of world peace and productivity. Bova's 1985 novel Privateers is a fantasy about what might happen if the United States ignored its chance to develop a space-based defense system. In this novel, only a dictatorial Soviet Union has weapons in orbit, and the Soviets proceed to exploit space for their own gain while the rest of the world watches helplessly. Analog 's Tom Easton called the book "a good yarn and a thrilling adventure," adding: "What Bova cautions us against seems all too possible."

Already established as a successful writer and editor, by the 1980s Bova was devoting a good deal of time to one of his favorite causes—rallying support for space exploration. In 1986, for example, after the American space shuttle Challenger was lost in a tragic accident, Bova testified before a subcommittee of the U.S. House of Representatives in favor of building a replacement shuttle, eager that a full fleet of the craft remain available to help build a proposed American space station. Despite his increasing activism, however, Bova noted in 1982 that writing has always been his principal interest. He expressed his respect for the craft of storytelling in Notes to a Science Fiction Writer. "There is no older, more honored, more demanding, more frustrating, more rewarding profession in the universe," he wrote. "If the only thing that separates us from the beasts is our intelligence and our ability to speak, then story-telling is the most uniquely human activity there can be."

In the 1990s, Bova began to write about human settlements on other planets in "Grand Tour," a series of books depicting realistic projections of what travel in distant space might be like. Mars features a team of scientists led by Jamie Waterman on the first manned mission to the red planet, while Venus tells the story of a disliked son trying to recover the body of his brother, who perished on an earlier expedition to that planet. In Jupiter, a young, disenchanted scientist must struggle to resolve a conflict between his faith in religion and new discoveries found on the biggest planet in the solar system. Bova revisits the landscape of Mars in Return to Mars, a 1999 story following Waterman as he continues to search for evidence that intelligent life once existed on the planet. Reviewing Mars in People, Susan Toepfer commented on Bova's ability to combine hard science with an engaging story, stating that "it is a tribute to Bova … that he can stick to his technological details—the hard science fiction for which he is known—and make this barren world come alive."

Bova offered another fact-filled novel of adventure with Saturn. This tale is set in the far future, when ten thousand people can be boarded on a giant spaceship that actually contains a habitat for their survival. Traveling from Earth to Saturn as an experiment, the craft and its passengers allow the author to comment on government, religion, and human relations in general as he recounts the story. A Publishers Weekly reviewer found Saturn less engaging than Jupiter or Venus, having "too many characters with too many agendas." Nevertheless, the reviewer noted that the author "thoroughly explores human motivation and desires."

The author returned closer to home with Mercury, in which the small planet, close to the sun, is eyed as a potential boon for mankind. Mercury's resources and possibilities are coveted by many parties in a book that combines scientific fact with human passions and conflicts. One character even seeks to use the planet as a springboard for personal revenge. Cassada, reviewing this book in Library Journal, called it "dramatic," and a Publishers Weekly reviewer commented that while some elements of the story are commonplace, the moral issues raised "add depth" to the book.

Titan continued Bova's series of space-exploration books with a story linked to the events in Saturn. The largest moon of Saturn, Titan is seen as a likely spot for human settlement due to the abundance of methane, which can function as fuel. The potential colonists on board the ship Goddard argue over the way to proceed after communications are lost between the ship and a probe that has been sent to Titan. Booklist reviewer Green praised the book's "brisk pace" and its "thunderous and even triumphant climax."

Bova's Tales of the Grand Tour contains many short stories. Several feature Jamie Waterman, an astronaut who was part of the first and second Mars missions. Another relates the discovery of giant beings in the seas of Jupiter. A legend is recounted in the tale of Harry Twelvetoes, a construction worker in space, and a story influenced by film-noir is presented in "Sam and the Flying Dutchman." Regina Schroeder, reviewing the collection for Booklist, recommended Tales of the Grand Tour for its characterizations, as well as its "high-tension adventure, thoughtful introspection, and a sense of wonder."

Planets are not the only objects in space to receive treatment from Bova. Set in the twenty-first century, Moonrise explores what happens when private investors are encouraged to develop outer space. A space colony, Moonbase, is established on the Earth's moon, but not without controversy and bitter feuding among cut-throat businessmen as well as among neo-Luddites who do not wish to see the moon developed. In the sequel, Moonwar, the residents of Moonbase must surrender their home to the United Nations or fight to preserve their lunar existence. Booklist critic Roland Green said of Moonwar, "with plenty of action and formidably effective suspense, Moonwar can be considered one of Bova's best."

Bova depicted a power struggle over the valuable raw material of the Asteroid Belt in a trilogy that includes The Precipice, The Rock Rats, and The Silent War. The Precipice presents a near-future world in which the greenhouse effect has altered the earth's climate, producing extreme weather that has killed or displaced huge segments of the population. The crisis has forced an alliance between Dan Randolph and Martin Humphries, two wealthy, rival leaders of space industry. The technologies they control are crucial to mankind's future, as new settlement opportunities open up on the moon and beyond. These two very different men must work together towards a common goal, but they face many roadblocks from the governments of Earth, who have difficulty seeing beyond their immediate concerns and nationalistic interests. Liz LaValley, reviewing The Precipice for Kliatt, called it "thick with accurate science and the machinations of human preference for short-term benefits," as well as a timely warning about the dangers of climate-altering pollution.

Bova continued the saga in The Rock Rats. An asteroid belt has been found to be rich in much-needed natural resources, and although it is mainly the wealthy elite that profits from this situation, there are also many space prospectors who seek riches, working the asteroid belt for a profitable strike. When these prospectors and adventurers need supplies or recreation, they head for Ceres, the largest asteroid in the system. One prospector, Lars Fuchs, works with his wife to form a society that will protect them from threats to their common good. Christine C. Menefee, reviewing The Rock Rats for School Library Journal, found the characterization light-weight but recommended the book to "readers who enjoy plenty of action."

The trilogy concluded with The Silent War, which shows Lars, now a fugitive and a space pirate, seeking revenge on Martin Humphries, who once betrayed him. To do so, he takes advantage of a rivalry between Humphries and another space tycoon, Pancho Lane—a rivalry that is endangering the entire population of the asteroid belt. There are elements of "classic tragedy as well as high adventure" in this story, according to Jackie Cassada in Library Journal. Booklist reviewer Green cited this novel as "vintage Bova, with intrigues, hardware, and action all applied lavishly to a fast-moving story." The author later added to the trilogy a prequel, Powersat, that involved Randolph's efforts to overcome the United States's crippling dependence on oil from the Middle East.

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

books

Bova, Ben, Notes to a Science Fiction Writer, Scribner (New York, NY), 1977.

Children's Literature Review, Volume 3, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1978.

Contemporary Literary Criticism, Volume 45, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1987.

Dictionary of Literary Biography Yearbook, 1981, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1982, p. 165.

St. James Guide to Science Fiction Writers, 4th edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1996.

periodicals

Analog, November 9, 1981, Spider Robinson, review of Voyagers, pp. 116-117; January, 1986, Tom Easton, review of Privateers, pp. 178-179.

Astronomy, January, 2002, review of The Story of Light, p. 98.

Booklist, February 1, 1998, Roland Green, review of Moonwar, p. 905; April 1, 2000, Roland Green, review of Venus, p. 1440; January 1, 2001, Roland Green, review of Jupiter, p. 928; January 1, 2004, Regina Schroeder, review of Tales of the Grand Tour, p. 838; February 15, 2004, Frieda Murray, review of Faint Echoes, Distant Stars: The Science and Politics of Finding Life beyond Earth, p. 1012; May 1, 2004, Roland Green, review of The Silent War, p. 1151; May 1, 2006, Roland Green, review of Titan, p. 76.

Kirkus Reviews, December 1, 2004, review of Powersat, p. 1125.

Kliatt, May, 2003, Liz LaValley, review of The Precipice, p. 23; March, 2005, Nola Theiss, review of Saturn, p. 56.

Library Journal, January, 1998, Jackie Cassada, review of Moonwar, p. 149; June 15, 1999, Jackie Cassada, review of Return to Mars, p. 111; April 15, 2000, Jackie Cassada, review of Venus, p. 126; January 1, 2001, Jackie Cassada, review of Jupiter, p. 163; January, 2004, Jackie Cassada, review of Tales of the Grand Tour, p. 168; May 15, 2004, Jackie Cassada, review of The Silent War, p. 119; January 1, 2005, Jackie Cassada, review of Powersat, p. 103; February 15, 2005, Jackie Cassada, review of The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, p. 123; May 15, 2005, Jackie Cassada, review of Mercury, p. 111; February 15, 2006, Jackie Cassada, review of Titan, p. 110.

National Review, May 14, 1982, Jack Kirwan, review of The High Road, p. 577.

New York Times Book Review, September 11, 1988, Rosalind Williams, review of Interactions: A Journey through the Mind of a Particle Physicist and the Matter of This World, p. 13.

Omni, June, 1992, Robert K.J. Killheffer, review of Mars, p. 16.

People, August 3, 1992, Susan Toepfer, review of Mars, p. 30.

Publishers Weekly, November 4, 1988, Sybil Steinberg, interview with Ben Bova, p. 63; April 20, 1992, review of Mars, p. 40; January 29, 1996, review of Brothers, p. 88; October 28, 1996, review of Moonrise, p. 62; May 24, 1999, review of Return to Mars, p. 72; February 21, 2000, review of Venus, p. 69; November 27, 2000, review of Jupiter, p. 58; August 6, 2001, review of The Story of Light, p. 76; September 10, 2001, review of The Precipice, p. 66; May 19, 2003, review of Saturn, p. 57; April 18, 2005, review of Mercury, p. 48.

School Library Journal, February, 1982, John Adams, review of The High Road, p. 95; November, 2002, Christine C. Menefee, review of The Rock Rats, p. 194.

Science News, March 27, 2004, review of Faint Echoes, Distant Stars, p. 207.

other

Ben Bova Home Page,http://benbova.com (May 28, 2006).

Bookpage,http://www.bookpage.com/ (June, 1999), Jay MacDonald, "Men on Mars, Women on Venus."*

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