Mancini, Hortense (1646–1699)
Mancini, Hortense (1646–1699)
Duchess of Mazarin . Name variations: Duchesse de Mazarin. Born in Rome in 1646 (some sources cite 1640); died in Chelsea, England, in 1699; fourth daughter of Laurent also seen as Lorenzo Mancini and a mother (maiden name Mazarini or Mazarino) who was the sister of Cardinal Jules Mazarin (chief minister to the young Louis XIV); sister of Olympia (c. 1639–1708), Marie Mancini (1640–1715), Marie-Anne Mancini (1649–1714), Laure Mancini (1635–1657); cousin of Anne-Marie Martinozzi (1637–1672) and Laura Martinozzi; married Marquis de La Meilleraye and Mayenne, who was elevated by the cardinal to the duke of Mazarin.
A Roman family, the Mancinis were introduced to the French court by Cardinal Jules Mazarin; they were the daughters of one of his four sisters and had come to live with him in Paris. There were five Mancini sisters, called the "Mazarinettes," who were married off to some of the oldest and noblest families in France and Italy, including Laure Mancini who married Louis de Vendôme, duke of Mercoeur; Olympia Mancini who married Eugene Maurice de Savoie-Carignan and was the mother of Prince Eugene of Savoy and the mistress of Louis XIV; Marie Mancini who was in love with Louis XIV but married the Prince of Colonna; Marie-Anne Mancini who married Godfrey Maurice de la Tour, duke of Bouillon; and Hortense. Mazarin had another sister Laura Margaret Mazarini who married Girolamo Martinozzi, adding their children Anne-Marie Martinozzi , who married the prince de Conti, and Laura Martinozzi , who married Alphonse d'Este, to his flock of nieces.
One of the most beautiful and flamboyant women in Europe, Hortense walked out on her miserable marriage to the duke of Mazarin. A religious fanatic, the duke had forced her to perform severe penances for her sins—real or imagined. He had also squandered her sizeable dowry. But Louis XIV refused to acknowledge Hortense's petitions to return the property she had brought to the marriage. After a brief dalliance with the duke of Savoy and an order by a French court to return to her husband and submit to his authority, Hortense fled to England in late 1675, accompanied by her pet parrot and her black page, Mustapha. Before long, she became the mistress of Charles II of England, following a considerable line of mistresses that included Marguerite Carteret, Lucy Walter , Elizabeth Killigrew , Catherine Pegge , Moll Davies , Lady Elizabeth Byron, Frances Stuart, Louise de Kéroüalle (duchess of Portsmouth), Barbara Villiers , countess of Castlemain, and Nell Gwynn . As a compulsive gambler and sexual free spirit, Hortense's term with the king was short. "Each sex provides its lovers for Hortense," commented an idle courtier. Her over-familiarity with a daughter of Charles, as well as her conspicuous flirtation in 1677 with the prince of Monaco, ended her reign as royal mistress. Her memoirs were probably written by the abbé de Saint-Réal from materials supplied by her. (For more information see Gwynn, Nell.)
Les Nieces de Mazarin. Paris, 1856.
"Mancini, Hortense (1646–1699)." Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 16, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mancini-hortense-1646-1699
"Mancini, Hortense (1646–1699)." Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. . Retrieved January 16, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mancini-hortense-1646-1699
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.