Pei Wenzhong

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PEI WENZHONG

(Pei Wen-Chung, Pei Wen-Jung) (b. Luanxian, Zhili, China, Lunar date 19 January 1904/Gregorian date 5 March 1904; d. Beijing, 18 September 1982), paleoanthropology, vertebrate paleontology.

Pei is considered a pioneer of Chinese paleoanthropology, archaeology, and vertebrate paleontology. He is best known for the 1929 discovery of the first complete calvarium (skull cap) of “Peking Man” (Sinanthropus; Homo erectus) from the famous archaeological site of Zhoukoudian, 50 kilometers southwest of central Beijing. His career spanned almost half a century, during which he excavated at archaeological localities all over China and became a recognized expert in identifying fossil animal bones. Pei understood and promoted the science of archaeology at least four decades before it became standard procedure to apply quantitative analytical methodologies to excavation and analysis of fossil and artifactual materials. Perhaps most extraordinary was Pei’s consideration of the complex processes of site formation long before the formal terminology of taphonomy was a part of the archaeologists’ vocabulary.

Early Life Pei Wenzhong was born seven years before the overthrow of the Qing dynasty, in Lauxian, Zhili (now Fengnan, Hebei). He was the youngest son of Pei Tingying, a school teacher. Pei began formal schooling in a county elementary school at the age of eight; and in 1916, lacking the financial resources to attend middle school, he enrolled in the government-funded provincial teacher-training school. Several historical and biographical sources recount Pei’s early participation in patriotic demonstrations in 1915 and again in 1919 during the May Fourth Movement. The latter led to a short suspension from the teachers school during this unsettled period as China struggled to establish its first republic.

Unable to secure a teaching position after completing his training in 1921, Pei went to Beijing (formerly known as Peking) and was admitted to the preparatory class for Peking University. Two years later he began his formal study in the Department of Geology. His motivation for choosing geology is unclear since he exhibited a keen interest in literature and would often audit literature classes while at the university. To support himself, Pei substituted in local schools and earned money by submitting articles to newspapers. Nonetheless, Pei’s training in geology was the beginning of a lifelong focus on interpreting the biocultural evolution of humans in China and resulted in an eminent career. After his graduation in 1927, Pei struggled to make ends meet by working part-time teaching geology and biology at a high school. Desperate for a full time position, he sent a letter to Weng Wenhao, director of the Geological Survey of China. To Pei’s surprise, Weng responded promptly, offering him a project-based research assignment studying trilobite fossils from Shandong Province. Coincidentally, the Geological Survey had just formed a collaboration with Peking Union Medical College to investigate the tertiary and quaternary deposits of northern China after fossil human teeth were discovered at Zhoukoudian, a small village southwest of Beijing. When Pei finished the trilobite project the following spring, he was recommended to Yang Zhongjian (C. C. Young), a young paleontologist who had earned his PhD from the University of Munich in Germany. Yang was the new representative of the Geological Survey on the Zhoukoudian exploration team. In April 1928, Pei became an assistant to Yang and began his intensive field training and the excavations that would shape the rest of his professional life.

Zhoukoudian In the first two decades of the 1900s, western scientists including Johan Gunnar Andersson, Birger Bohlin, Otto Zdansky, and Fathers Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and Emile Licent began systematic prospecting of China’s paleontological and archaeological localities. Large expeditions were undertaken to the remote Ordos Desert region of Inner Mongolia and farther west into Gansu Province. Sporadic discoveries of stone artifacts in association with Pleistocene animal fossils hinted at the great antiquity of humans in Asia. Mammalian fauna excavated from Zhoukoudian in 1921 and 1923 yielded the first indication of human fossils in the form of two isolated teeth. This was enough incentive to stimulate the newly formed Cenozoic Research Laboratory of the Geological Survey of China to apply for fieldwork funds from the Rockefeller Foundation (Jia and Huang, 1990). The respected Canadian anatomist Davidson Black was instrumental in obtaining this support. His prominence in the Anatomy Department of Peking Union Medical College developed in the years between 1919, when he first arrived in China, and 1925 when he publicly promoted the idea that Asia was the cradle of humankind. It was Black who first assigned the taxonomic designation, Sinanthropus pekinensis, to the precious fossil teeth that foreshadowed Pei’s dramatic discovery several years later. In 1927 the Zhoukoudian project began a collaboration between foreign and Chinese scientists that would continue until the Chinese Liberation (the creation of the People’s Republic of China) in 1949.

Pei’s long and productive career is intimately tied to this most famous archaeological locality in northern China. Long recognized as a source of “dragon bones,” the fossiliferous deposits of Zhoukoudian had been explored and exploited by the local people as a valuable resource of vertebrate fossils to be ground up and used for medicinal purposes. The productivity of the deposits became clear during the first two years of formal excavation when thousands of animal fossils were recovered from the quaternary layers at the site. As a new graduate of Peking University in 1928, the twenty-four-year-old geologist was recruited along with Yang Zhongjian to join the field team. Just one year later Pei was given the position of leading the Zhoukoudian Project when Yang and Birger Bohlin (the field advisor) were both involved with other expeditions. As often happens on field projects, harsh winter weather that threatens to bring an end to excavation instead brings unexpected luck. Pei relates the story of finding the first Sinanthropus (now called Homo erectus) skull as the sun was setting on a chilly December day in 1929. He was supervising a group of four workers in a narrow pit that was especially productive with fossil specimens when he recognized a round object in the dirt that he suspected was a human skull. In the dim candle light that illuminated the cramped excavation pit of Locality 1, he worked tirelessly to remove the fossil. The thought of leaving it in place, even one more night after perhaps 500,000 years, was too hard for him to imagine! Late into the evening he prepared the precious fossil for transport back to the Cenozoic Laboratory in Beijing. The next morning Pei dispatched a man to deliver a letter to Weng Wenhao, and, worried that the letter would arrive late in the day, he also sent a telegram to Davidson Black. On 6 December, Pei personally delivered the skullcap to Black, who began on the reconstruction and in the true spirit of collegiality, praised Pei for his skill and diligence in excavating and transporting the specimen.

Through the 1930s new fossil localities were unearthed at Zhoukoudian. Pei’s versatility as an excavator and growing expertise in fossil identification and stone tool analysis made him invaluable to the project. Excavations at the newly discovered Localities 3, 5, 13, and 15 provided Pei with a wealth of material to study and interpret. He was a prolific scholar with more than twenty publications in the years between 1929 and 1939, including extensive treatises on the mammalian fauna and a study of the Abūndant stone artifacts from Locality 15. Pei recognized that chronological context was of primary importance in the analysis and interpretation of the human fossil record and he published an important comparison in 1931 of the Zhoukoudian fauna with two other well-known faunal collections; the Yanjinggou fauna of Sichuan and the animal fossils from the Nihewan Beds in Hebei. He concluded that the antiquity of the deposits was perhaps as great as the early part of the Ice Age (Lower Pleistocene). Recent geochemical dating techniques have reassessed these deposits as later in time, Middle Pleistocene (500,000–300,000 years ago), but Pei’s comparative faunal studies were a landmark in the initial attempts to understand the early human occupation of China.

This early phase of investigations at Zhoukoudian came to a close in July 1937 shortly before the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War. The fossil inventory from these excavations was astounding. Several fine skull specimens, numerous cranial fragments, hundreds of human teeth and jaw fragments, thousands of animal fossils, and a diverse collection of stone tools were among the specimens curated by the Cenozoic Laboratory in Beijing when Pei followed Yang Zhongjian as laboratory director. Ironically, these first Peking Man fossils became notorious for the mysterious circumstances surrounding their disappearance in 1941 at the start of World War II. Pei’s commitment to their careful study and timely analysis make his publications all the more valuable given the subsequent loss of the original materials. His familiarity with the animal fossils, especially his study of the carnivores represented in the Locality 1 deposits, initiated a research emphasis that continues as a primary focus in paleoanthropology under the rubric of taphonomy: that is, investigating what agents collect and modify bone and archaeological assemblages.

In the prewar years, the renowned German osteolo-gist, Franz Weidenreich (1873–1948), was selected by the China Medical Board of the Rockefeller Foundation to resume the work that had abruptly ended with Black’s untimely death in 1934. Fortunately, Weidenreich had the foresight to fashion a superb set of fossil casts from the original Peking Man specimens. As war seemed imminent, Pei actively petitioned the U.S. Embassy to ensure the safety of the fossil collection. He was subject to several episodes of intense interrogation by the Japanese as they tried in vain to determine the location of the cache of specimens.

French Years and Sino-Japanese War It is not difficult to imagine the initial shock generated by the news that a complete Sinanthropus skull was unearthed by the relatively inexperienced geologist Pei Wenzhong. As Jia Lanpo and Huang Weiwen state in The Story of Peking Man: From Archaeology to Mystery, “The skeptics either doubted Pei’s ability to correctly identify the specimen or simply refused to believe in such good luck” (1990, p. 65). When Pei was hired a year and a half before the discovery, his main jobs were bookkeeping, dealing with workers, and miscellaneous organizational tasks. Birger Bohlin, the field advisor, appreciated this young assistant and Pei soon took a more active role in the excavation. Pei must have also impressed Abbé Henri Breuil, the famous French archaeologist who visited Zhoukoudian twice in 1931 and was one of the first foreign scholars to publish extensive treatises on Chinese Paleolithic materials. Breuil encouraged Pei to continue his studies in France where comparative collections of the French Paleolithic would provide an excellent basis for understanding and interpreting the Chinese fossil record. In July 1935, Pei set off from Shanghai for Paris, and for the next two years Breuil devised an intensive study plan for Pei. In the first few months, his days began with a four-hour French lesson followed by another four hours of research at the Institute de Paléontologie Humaine (Institute of human paleontology). Pei remarked that the months from October 1935 to June 1936 were the most diligent academic experiences of his life. In June 1937, Pei completed a dissertation on the challenges of distinguishing humanly produced stone artifacts in archaeological context and received a doctoral degree as the culmination of his studies in France.

Hostilities between Japan and China had been intensifying since 1931 and Pei’s trip home from Europe was detoured by the 7 July Lugouqiao incident that marked full-scale resistance to the Japanese. By the time Pei arrived in Nanjing in October, China was at war. Weng Wenhao welcomed Pei in Nanjing and urged him to return to Beijing (called Beiping at the time). The capital city was already under Japanese control and Pei planned to gather his family and then move to Changsha with the Geological Survey of China. While Pei was in France, a bright young archaeologist, Jia Lanpo, had joined the Zhoukoudian team as excavation leader. When Pei got to Beijing in November, however, a letter from Weng instructed him to stay and oversee the Geological Survey and the Cenozoic Laboratory. Thus Pei never left Beijing throughout the Sino-Japanese War and served as director of the Cenozoic Laboratory from November 1937 until December 1941. Shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the laboratory was closed. Through the war years, Pei taught at Yanjing University, Beijing Normal University, and Zhongfa University.

People’s Republic of China and Cultural Revolution When the war was over in 1945, the Beijing office of the Geological Survey was again under Chinese governmental supervision and the Cenozoic Research Laboratory reopened. The next few years, however, saw little activity at the Zhoukoudian site since funding from the Rockefeller Foundation was no longer available. Pei continued to lecture at several universities, including Peking University, and in subsequent years devoted much of his research attention to newly discovered Neolithic localities in the Gansu region. Some biographical commentaries suggest that Pei was disheartened by the lack of academic and financial support from the Nationalist government for archaeological research during the postwar years. This may have prompted his allegiance to the Communist Party in the hope that they would be receptive to an archaeology that “made the past serve the present”—a popular slogan reflecting communist ideology toward societal structure. In any case, Pei chose to stay in Beijing as the Communist Party took over China in 1949.

If Zhoukoudian was a factor for Pei’s remaining in Beijing, he must have been reassured when the new government approved the resumption of excavation work at the site, under the direction of Jia Lanpo and Liu Xianting. Although Pei continued to serve as director of the Cenozoic Laboratory, he was officially working for the Ministry of Culture from December 1949 to December 1953. Much of his work involved the curation and exhibition of antiquities and administrative duties associated with museum operation. It was not until 1953, when the Vertebrate Paleontology Research Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences was established, that Pei was permitted to go back to his devout dedication to archaeo-logical research. The Vertebrate Paleontology Research Laboratory was an informal successor to the Cenozoic Laboratory and the predecessor of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP). Pei began to oversee the IVPP Research Laboratory when it was established in 1956, and was appointed director in 1963 and served that institute until his death in 1982.

Other than the unfortunate pause during the Cultural Revolution, Pei’s professional life after 1949 was active and productive. He held a number of scientific posts in the People’s Republic of China and participated in numerous archaeological surveys and excavations, working literally until the end of his life. Pei surveyed Paleolithic sites in Nihewan, Hebei Province, and Datong, Shanxi Province, in 1950. In 1951, he led the excavation effort in Ziyang, Sichuan Province, where an Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens skull was found by railroad workers. After 1949, the emphasis on Paleolithic and Neolithic archaeology reflected the political dogma to serve the workers, farmers, and soldiers. For example, Marxist theorists held that the archaeological evidence could be interpreted to support the communal social structure of early agricultural villages in Neolithic China. The research focus was directed toward supporting the in situ antiquity of humans in China and the inevitable struggle for existence through labor (cf. Engel’s theory that “labor created man”; Tong 1995). From 1952 to 1955, Pei was charged with training new archaeologists, a joint effort of the Ministry of Culture, the Institute of Archaeology, and Peking University. This marked the establishment of archaeology as a formal field of study at the prestigious university. In 1954 Pei directed the Dingcun excavations at Xiangfen county, Shanxi, where stone tools and several Homo sapiens teeth of late Middle Pleistocene age were found. One of Pei’s most prolific years was 1957, when he published seventeen articles in Chinese, English, and French. Archaeological surveys from 1959 to 1965 took Pei to Hebei, Guangxi, Yunnan, Shanxi, and Hetao.

Like most of his contemporaries and many other intellectuals, Pei bore his share of painful experiences during the Cultural Revolution. As a teacher and scholar, Pei was labeled a “reactionary academic authority,” sent to the “cowshed” (niupeng), investigated, and criticized. He was confined in isolation from May 1968 to January 1969, and according to recollections of his friends and students, he suffered physical punishments when a verse in his private journal was interpreted as expressing contempt toward the propaganda campaign of the government. Pei was seen sweeping the courtyard and street near the crowded house his family shared with several others. Then in 1974, as the Cultural Revolution was nearing an end, he was formally photographed by the Chinese Pictorial(Renmin Huabao) presumably to demonstrate to the outside world that the famous paleoanthropologist was alive and well.

Teacher-Scholar When Pei first arrived at Zhoukoudian, he had very little experience in excavation techniques or in identifying fossils and assigning taxonomic designation. The practical knowledge of a valued field-worker made Pei realize the importance of hands-on experience and motivated him to develop expertise in field methodologies. Pei was credited for introducing high standards at Zhoukoudian. In particular he revised and refined the excavation techniques to include systematic trenching that added a level of precision and stratigraphic control (Jia and Huang, 1990). Pei’s students recalled their teacher’s “four wheels” and “four means of diligence” philosophy. To become well-rounded archaeologists, Pei advised his students to run on “four wheels,” that is to master the subject areas of geology, paleontology, paleoanthropology, and Paleolithic archaeology. He taught that diligent study made use of the brain, the hands, the eyes, and the mouth, and so he urged his students to think more, work more, observe more, and inquire more.

In the 1940s Pei became embroiled in an interesting controversy. The renowned anatomist Franz Weidenreich, who had intensively studied the fossil humans from Zhoukoudian, argued that the scarcity of postcranial remains and the characteristic breakage pattern of the calvaria could be interpreted as support for the idea that Peking Man practiced cannibalism. Pei disagreed and instead suggested that Peking Man was the prey of other carnivorous animals that shared the Pleistocene landscape. More than sixty years later, scholars still argue about the relative roles of carnivores and humans in the formation of archaeological deposits. It remains an integral part of paleoanthropological work in every region of the world.

In 1956 Pei, along with Jia Lanpo, led an expedition to southern China in search of the fossil remains of Gigantopithecus, a species of giant ape. Isolated fossils of this rare primate had been surfacing in provincial museums near the spectacular karst tower mountains of Guangxi. Pei enlisted the help of a local peasant to investigate the cave site of Liucheng, near Liuzhou City. The precipitous karst towers riddled with fossil-rich caverns were irresistible to Pei and his team of excavators, even though it was an extreme physical feat to climb up and into these caves. Their perseverance paid off and over a seven-year period, the team recovered the largest collection of Gigantopithecus fossils to date: three mandibles, more than a thousand fossil teeth, and an associated collection of mammalian fauna documenting a unique environmental context. Qing recalls that Pei was generous with both his knowledge and in rewarding his hardworking field crew. He held a number of public lectures in Liucheng and offered remuneration to his workers (Ciochon, Olsen, and James, 1990).

Pei earned a reputation as a meticulous and innovative scholar. His colleagues recall the extraordinary care he took with the recovery of a rare rhinoceros fossil specimen. Pei’s reconstruction was so exceptional that the complete skeleton was placed on display in the exhibition hall of the China Geological Survey. He recognized the complexities in distinguishing humanly produced stone artifacts and bone flakes at early Paleolithic sites and this led to the formulation of his PhD dissertation research. His work marked one of the first exercises in experimental archaeology (Lu, 2002) and stimulated an interest in understanding the technological aspects of the toolmaking process. This focus on tool technology and manufacture influenced the interpretation of discoveries at important sites such as Dingcun, the Nihewan Basin localities, and the southern Chinese cave site of Guanyindong. The large, heavy-duty Dingcun stone tools suggested that the Chinese Paleolithic was technologically diverse and the idea of regional differences among Paleolithic assemblages became a focus of archaeological studies after the discovery of thousands of Lower Paleolithic artifacts at Guanyindong (Wu and Olsen, 1985).

Private Life and Later Years When the Cultural Revolution was finally over in 1976, Pei was seventy-two years old and in declining health. He was hospitalized in 1975, suffered from lower-limb thrombosis in 1980, then had a stroke the following year. Though ailing since the end of the Cultural Revolution, Pei continued to take part in archaeological surveys and was invited to give a presentation in Japan two years before his death. As a young scholar, the now-eminent archaeologist Zhang Senshui worked as Pei’s assistant through his final years. With Zhang’s assistance, Pei completed his last book Zhongguo yuan ren shi qi yan jiu (A study on the lithic artifacts of Sinanthropus), although he did not live to see it published. A second posthumous publication, Liucheng Juyuan dong ji Guangxi qi ta shan dong zhi shi rou lei, chang bi lei he nie chi lei hua shi (A study of Carnivora, Proboscidea, and Rodentia fossils from Liucheng Gigantopithecus cave and other caves in Guangxi), documented the fossil mammals from the Gigantopithecus cave, establishing a date for those materials at about one million years.

Pei earned his fame early in his career with an extraordinary fortuitous discovery but retained a sense of humility through his long career. He is remembered as a teacher who cared about students both personally and professionally. During the Cultural Revolution years he walked miles to visit a sick student even though he himself was suffering from Abūsive treatment at the hands of the Red Guard. He took time to tutor students in the English language, for he believed that mastering foreign languages was essential to quality scholarship. He maintained that his accomplishments in archaeology were simply part of his professional duties, and he was a devoted scholar who worked until the end of his life.

Pei was married to Shu Lingyi in 1932. Pei was a friend of Shu’s uncle and a generation older when they met in 1928. According to the traditional Chinese view, this was not an ideal match but their courtship took place despite the disapproval of Shu’s family. Pei and Shu proved themselves to be a loving couple who supported and took care of each other during good and bad times. Shu taught high school before the Cultural Revolution and she outlived Pei by a few years. They had three sons, Pei Duan, Pei Run, and Pei Shen, and two daughters, Pei Gui and Pei Li. Pei Duan remembers that his father spent most of the family savings on books and educational expenses for the children. He expected them to study hard and urged them to be extremely inquisitive in the pursuit of knowledge. Pei Wenzhong died on 18 September 1982 and is buried alongside Yang Zhongjian and Jia Lanpo at Zhoukoudian.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A detailed bibliography of Pei’s works is included in Bu xiu de ren ge yu ye ji: ji nian Pei Wenzhong xian sheng dan chen 100 zhou nian [Commemorate the 100th birthday of Pei Wenzhong].Beijing: Ke xue chu ban she, 2004.

WORKS BY PEI

“An Account of the Discovery of an Adult Sinanthropus Skull in the Choukoutien Deposit.” Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 8, no. 3 (1929): 203–205.

“The Age of Choukoutien Fossiliferous Deposit: A Tentative Determination by Comparison with Other Later Cenozoic (Phychozoic) Deposits in China.” Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 10 (1931): 165–178.

“Mammalian Remains from Locality 5 at Choukoutien.” Palaeontologia sinica, series C, 7, no. 2 (1931): 1–18. “Notice of the Discovery of Quartz and Other Stone Artifacts in the Lower Pleistocene Hominid-Bearing Sediments of the Choukoutien Cave Deposit.” Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 11, no. 2 (1931): 109–146.

With Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. “The Lithic Industry of the Sinanthropus Deposits in Choukoutien.” Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 11, no. 4 (1932): 317–358. With Davidson Black, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, and C. C.Young. “Fossil Man in China.” Geological Memoirs, Geological Survey of China, series A, 11 (1933): 1–174.

“On the Carnivora from Locality 1 of Choukoutien.”Palaeontologia sinica, series C, 8, no. 1 (1934): 1–216.

“Report on the Excavation of the Locality 13 in Choukoutien.” Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 13, no. 3 (1934): 359–367.

“On the Mammalian Remains from Locality 3 at Choukoutien.” Palaeontologia sinica, series C, 7, no. 5 (1936): 1–120.

“Le role des animaux et des causes naturelles dans la cassure des os.” Palaeontologia sinica, new series D, 7 (1938): 1–60.

“New Fossil Material and Artifacts Collection from the Choukoutien Region during the Years 1937–1939.” Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 19, no. 3 (1939): 207–234

“A Preliminary Study on a New Palaeolithic Station Known as Locality 15 within the Choukoutien Region.” Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 19, no. 2 (1939): 147–187.

With Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. “The Fossil Mammals of Locality 13 in Choukoutien.” Palaeontologia sinica, n.s., C, 11 (1941): 1–118.

“Archaeological Research in Kansu.” Peking Natural History Bulletin 16, nos. 3–4 (1947–1948): 231–238.

“New Light on Peking Man.” China Reconstructs 3, no. 4 (1954):133–136.

“Discovery of Gigantopithecus Mandibles and Other Material in Liu-Cheng District of Central Kwangsi in South China.”Vertebrate Palasiatica 1, no. 2 (1957): 65–72.

“Discovery of Lower Jaws on Giant Ape in Kwangsi, South China.” Science Record, n.s., 1, no. 3 (1957): 49–52.

“Giant Ape’s Jaw Bone Discovered in China.” American Anthropologist, n.s., 59, no. 5 (1957): 834–838.

“On the Problem of the ‘Bone Implements’ of the Choukoutien Sinanthropus Site.” Acta archaeologia sinica 2 (1960): 1–9. Pages 1–7 in Chinese and 8–9 in English.

“Reflections on the ‘Pseudo-Tool’ Question—Discussions on a Few Problems in Sinanthropus Culture.” Xinjianshe 8 (1961): 12–23.

“Quaternary Mammals from the Liucheng Gigantopithecus Cave and Other Caves of Kuangsi.” Scientia sinica 12 (1963): 221–229.

With Zhang Senshui. Zhongguo yuan ren shi qi yan jiu[A study on the lithic artifacts of Sinanthropus]. Beijing: Ke xue chu ban she, 1985.

Liucheng Juyuan dong ji Guangxi qi ta shan dong zhi shi rou lei, chang bi lei he nie chi lei hua shi [A study of Carnivora, Proboscidea and Rodentia fossils from Liucheng Gigantopithecus cave and other caves in Guangxi]. Beijing: Ke xue chu ban she, 1987.

Pei Wenzhong ke xue lun wen ji[Selected works of Pei Wenzhong]. Beijing: Ke xue chu ban she, 1990.

OTHER SOURCES

Chang, K. C. “Obituary: W. C. Pei (1904–1982).” American Anthropologist, n.s., 86, no. 1 (1984): 115–118.

Ciochon, Russell, John Olsen, and Jamie James. Other Origins: The Search for the Giant Ape in Human Prehistory. New York: Bantam Books, 1990.

Gao Xing and Pei Shen, eds. Bu xiu de ren ge yu ye ji: ji nian Pei Wenzhong xian sheng dan chen 100 zhou nian[Commemorate the 100th birthday of Pei Wenzhong]. Beijing: Ke xue chu ban she, 2004.

Jia Lanpo and Huang Weiwen. The Story of Peking Man: From Archaeology to Mystery. Translated by Yin Zhiqi. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1990.

Liu Houyi and Liu Qiusheng. Fa xian Zhongguo yuan ren de ren: Pei Wenzhong[The man who discovered Peking Man]. Kunming: Yunnan ren min chu ban she, 1980.

Lu, Tracey Lie-dan. “The Transformation of Academic Culture in Mainland Chinese Archaeology.” Asian Anthropology 1 (2002): 117–152.

Olsen, John W. “Pei Wenzhong 1904–1982.” In Encyclopedia of Archaeology: The Great Archaeologists, edited by Tim Murray. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999.

Tong Enzheng. “Thirty Years of Chinese Archaeology (1949–1979).” In Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology, edited by Philip L. Kohl and Clare Fawcett. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Wu, Rukang, and John W. Olsen. Palaeoanthropology and Palaeolithic Archaeology in the People’s Republic of China. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1985.

Annie Y. Hor Sari Miller-Antonio

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