Skip to main content


Cryptobranchidae (giant salamanders; class Amphibia, order Urodela) A family of what are probably neotenous (see NEOTENY), hynobiid descendants. Metamorphosis is incomplete, the gills are degenerate (hence the name, meaning ‘hidden gills’), the eyelids never develop, and larval teeth are retained throughout life. The head and body are broad and flattened, the tail laterally compressed, the skin smooth and slimy, and the habit totally aquatic. The largest extant amphibian, Andrias japonicus (Japanese giant salamander), is more than 1.5 m long and some are long-lived (A. japonicus individuals are known to have lived for 50 years). Tertiary fossil species are distributed widely in the northern hemisphere, but there are only two living genera, comprising three species, in N. America and Asia.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Cryptobranchidae." A Dictionary of Zoology. . 22 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Cryptobranchidae." A Dictionary of Zoology. . (April 22, 2019).

"Cryptobranchidae." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved April 22, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.