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Crypto-Calvinism is a term used by the exponents of gnesiolutheranism (genuine or strict Lutheranism) to describe a slant in the moderate or conciliatory theology of Philipp melanchthon (see philippism) away from orthodox Lutheranism and toward Calvinism, especially in the doctrine of the Lord's Supper. A lively controversy ensued between the orthodox Lutheran party, led by Matthias flacius illyricus, and the liberals, whom they called Crypto (secret)-Calvinists. In its progress occurred the Consensus Tigurinus (1549), an attempt at compromise by John calvin and Heinrich bullinger; the sharp polemic of Calvin against Joachim Westphal's Farrago confusanearum (1552); and the protection of Philippism by electoral Saxony when it officially approved the Corpus doctrinae Philippicum (1564). In 1574 M. E. Vögelin, a Leipzig book dealer, published the Exegesis perspicua by the Philippist Joachim Curaeus (153273), in which Philippism's view of the Lord's Supper was frankly conceded to be in essentials Calvinistic. This led to the imprisonment or exile of leading Philippists. The harshness and bitterness that marked the disputes on such questions as ubiquity and the communicatio idiomatum (see communication of idioms) was augmented by a political factor, namely, the fear of the German princes that Crypto-Calvinism tended to draw their creedally based regional power into the orbit of Calvinism, which had become politically international. Among the leading Crypto-Calvinists were: Georg major, Paul Eber (151169), Caspar Cruciger (152597), Nicolaus Crell (15501601), Caspar Peucer (15251602), Victorinus Strigel (152469), Joachim Camerarius, Johann Pfegginger (14931573), and Christoph Pezel (15391604).

See Also: confessions of faith, protestant.

Bibliography: r. calinich, Kampf und Untergang des Melanchthonismus in Kursachsen in den Jahren 157074 (Leipzig 1866). o. ritschl, Dogmengeschichte des Protestantismus, 4v. (Göttingen 190827) 4:1106. h. w. gensichen, Damnamus: Die Verwerfung von Irrlehre bei Luther und im Luthertum des 16 Jahrhunderts (Berlin 1955). t. diestelmann, Die letzte Unterredung Luthers mit Melanchthon über den Abendmahlsstreit (Göttingen 1874). l. loevenbruck, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. a. vacant et al., 15 v. (Paris 190350: Tables générales 1951) 3.2:239698. k. algermissen, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 10 v. (2d, new ed. Freiburg 195765) 6:653654.

[q. breen]