Cercopithecoidea (order Primates, suborder Simiiformes) A superfamily that comprises the extinct and extant monkeys of the Old World. Most are larger than Ceboidea. Ischial callosities are present, often surrounded by brightly coloured skin which becomes enlarged in females prior to ovulation. Cheek pouches are present and are used to store food. The tail is never prehensile. The olfactory turbinal bones are reduced, the nostrils close together and pointing downward. The second premolar tooth is absent. Some species are ground-dwelling. Thumbs may be opposable. Cercopithecoids may be herbivorous or omnivorous. The most characteristic specialization is bilophodonty. As well as the living Cercopithecidae, there is an early Miocene family, Victoriapithecidae (with two genera, Victoriapithecus and Prohylobates), which includes very primitive monkeys with only partially developed bilophodonty.
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