VOGELSTEIN, LUDWIG (1871–1934), U.S. business executive, philanthropist, and communal leader. Vogelstein, who was born in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia, went to the U.S. in 1896 as the representative of the metal firm of Aaron Hirsch & Sohn of Halberstadt. He later founded his own metal-dealing firm, which subsequently merged with the American Metal Co., Ltd. (1920). In 1924 Vogelstein became that firm's first vice president and later chairman of its executive board. He also founded and developed several large mining and metal companies in the U.S. and Canada. A vigorous supporter of Reform Judaism, Vogelstein predicted the eventual merging of all movements of Judaism. He was a staunch anti-Zionist. Extremely active in Jewish communal life, Vogelstein served as chairman of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations; trustee-at-large for the support of Jewish Philanthropic societies; vice president of the World Union for Progressive Judaism; governor of Hebrew Union College; director of the Jewish Publication Society; and president of Temple Beth-El (New York City), and a trustee after its merger with Emanu-El.