Solomon ben Judah of Lunel

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SOLOMON BEN JUDAH OF LUNEL (Solomon Vivas 1411–?), Provençal philosopher. At the age of 13, under the direction of his teacher, Solomon ben Menahem (Frat Maimon), Solomon composed a commentary on Judah *Halevi's Kuzari, entitled Ḥeshek Shelomo, which is extant in manuscript (Bodleian Library, Opp. Add. 114). At times, Solomon quotes his teacher word for word – for example, in the section on the 53rd chapter of Isaiah. While the author claims to have based his commentary on Judah b. Isaac Cardinal's Hebrew translation of the Kuzari, it appears that the translation he used was, apart from a few variations, that made by Judah ibn *Tibbon.

The work reflects a considerable knowledge of the philosophical literature of the period. Solomon quotes Shem Tov *Falaquera, *Levi b. Gershom's commentary on Ecclesiastes, a section on physics from Levi's Milḥamot Adonai, and portions of Levi's commentary on the Pentateuch. He also refers to *Moses of Narbonne's commentary on al-*Ghazali's "Intentions of the Philosophers", Solomon b. Menahem's commentary on *Levi b. Abraham's Battei ha-Nefesh, and Ru'aḥ Ḥen, philosophical work of disputed authorship which was meant to serve as a kind of introduction to the philosophic ideas of Maimonides' Guide. In one portion of his commentary, Solomon attributes Ru'aḥ Ḥen to Moses ibn *Tibbon, while in another portion, he holds that the work was written by Samuel ibn *Tibbon. He implies that he himself wrote a commentary to the work. Toward the end of Ḥeshek Shelomo he refers to Sefer ha-Sod by Joseph ibn *Kaspi.


Steinschneider, in: hb, 16 (1876), 127; Renan, Ecrivains, 412; Gross, Gal Jud, 290.