Pontifical Roman Universities

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PONTIFICAL ROMAN UNIVERSITIES

This article is concerned with those institutions of higher learning in Rome that have been founded as universities by the pope or given university status by papal action. All such universities are subject to the governing structures set out in Pope John Paul II's apostolic constitution sapientia christiana (1979) regulating ecclesiastical faculties and seminaries, together with the accompanying norms of the Sacred Congregation for Catholic Education, the Roman dicastery that has jurisdiction over them. The pontifical Roman universities provide service to the universal Church by lending their expertise to the Roman curia. While independent of one another, many of the universities share resources or are linked through agreements that have an impact on curriculum and formation of the student body. In 1991, several of the libraries of the major universities became part of the URBE (Roman Union of Ecclesiastical Libraries) network that allows students access to nearly four million volumes for specialized research.

The Annuario Pontificio 2000 reported seventeen institutions comprising the "Atenei Romani." Many of them contain specialized centers devoted to proscribed areas of study and many of these have degree-granting capabilities.

Pontificia Università Gregoriana. The Pontifical Gregorian University (PUG) is the largest of the pontifical Roman universities and is under the direction of the Society of Jesus. The prefect of the Sacred Congregation for Catholic Education is the chancellor, and the general of the Jesuit order is the vice-chancellor. Its faculties include theology, canon law, philosophy, church history, missiology, and social science. The PUG has three additional departments in spirituality, psychology, and religious studies. It also houses a school for the study of the Latin language. Finally, the PUG is home to the Pontifical Biblical Institute and the Pontifical Oriental Institute, both of which are discussed below.

The history of the PUG can be traced to St. ignatius loyola who, in 1551, founded the Collegium Romanum with St. Francis Borgia in what is today the Piazza d'Aracoeli. In 1555, a year before Ignatius died, the school was all but bankrupt, but in the next decade it prospered and grew. After the suppression of the Jesuit order in 1773, the Gregorian's faculty consisted mainly of alumni and secular clergy until the jesuits were again assigned to staff the university by Pope Leo XII in 1824.

By a rescript of December 4, 1873, Pius IX granted the rector use of the title "pontifical university." In 1876 the canon law faculty was added and in 1924, by his motu proprio Latinarum litterarum, Pius XI instituted the School of Latin Letters. His predecessor, Benedict XV, had the land for the present building set aside on the Piazza della Pilotta in 1919, although formal dedication ceremonies did not take place until 1930. By a letter of the Congregation for Catholic Education of May 20, 1958, the faculty of theology began the Institute of Spirituality. In 1970 and 1971, respectively, that same congregation established the Pontifical Institute "Regina Mundi" for research into societies of apostolic life and secular institutes and the Institute for Religious Studies. Also in 1971 the Institute of Psychology was established.

At the turn of the millenium, the library of the PUG contained some 1.2 million volumes, including those of the Biblicum and the PIO, for use by nearly 3,000 students and over 400 faculty. The PUG's publishing house prints books in the following series: Analecta Gregoriana, Documenta Missionalia, Inculturation, Miscellanea Historiae Pontificiae, and Tesi Gregoriana. Three periodicals are based at the Gregorian: Gregorianum (1920), Periodica de re Canonico (1912), and Archivum Historiae Pontificiae (1963).

Pontifical Biblical Institute. The Pontifical Biblical Institute (PBI) is a university-level institution of the Holy See located on the Via della Pilotta. Its grand chancellor is the cardinal prefect for the Congregation for the Eastern Churches. Pope St. Pius X established it with the apostolic letter Vinea electa of May 7, 1909, in order to be "a center of higher studies for Sacred Scripture in the city of Rome and of all related studies according to the spirit of the Catholic Church." From its foundation, the Institute was entrusted to the Society of Jesus, and Father L. Fonck served as organizer and first rector.

At the beginning the PBI prepared its students to take the examinations of the pontifical biblical commission. With the apostolic letter Cum Biblia sacra (August 15, 1916), Benedict XV authorized the institute to grant the academic degree of licence in the name of the Biblical Commission. The motu proprio Quod maxime (September 9, 1930) of Pius XI gave the institute academic independence from the Pontifical Biblical Commission and permitted it to grant the doctorate. With this same document, the PBI was officially associated with the Pontifical Gregorian University and the Pontifical Oriental Institute. These three institutions have the same vice-grand chancellor (the general of the Society of Jesus), but each has its own proper statutes. The grand chancellor of the institute is the prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education. On August 7, 1932, the Faculty of Ancient Near-Eastern Studies (Oriental Faculty) was erected, with the same academic privileges accorded to the Faculty of Biblical Studies for the granting of the licentiate and doctoral degrees.

The purpose of the PBI is to cultivate and promote, by means of scholarly research, the biblical and relevant ancient near eastern disciplines, in order to obtain "a more profound understanding and exposition of the meaning of Sacred Scripture" (Dei Verbum, §12). Second, it is to offer to the students, by the teaching and the practice of these various disciplines, in particular the biblical languages, an adequate preparation both for scholarly research and for the teaching and spread of Sacred Scripture and of the disciplines connected with it. Third, it is to work toward "a better understanding and explanation of the meaning of Sacred Scripture, so that through preparatory study the judgment of the Church may mature" (Dei Verbum, §12) and that Sacred Scripture may have an ever more active role in the study of theology, in pastoral ministry, in ecumenical dialogue, in the sacred liturgy, and in the reading of the faithful. An indispensable means for the PBI to achieve this goal is a specialized library, presently at about 160,000 volumes with subscriptions to 600 periodicals. The PBI has its own publications, including the journal Biblica, as well as a branch in Jerusalem, which was begun in 1927 and staffed by the Society of Jesus. At 2000 the PBI had 375 students from approximately 60 nations.

Pontifical Oriental Institute. The Pontifical Oriental Institute (PIO) was founded by Benedict XV on October 15, 1917. Initially it was located in the Piazza Scossacavalli near the Ospizio dei Convertendi. It began academic life on December 2, 1918 under the rectorship of Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, the abbot of St. Paul's Outside-the-Walls and future archbishop of Milan. In 1920 it obtained permission to grant academic degrees for studies of the eastern churches. In 1922, Pius XI entrusted the PIO to the Jesuit order and transferred it and the Pontifical Biblical Institute to the Piazza S. Maria Maggiore, though it was not until 1928 that the Gregorian "consortium" of the PIO, Biblicum, and university was formed. Pius XI, a former librarian of the Ambrosian library, generously supplied the library of the PIO with books pertaining to issues affecting the Eastern Churches. He continued to endow the school with leading faculty as well, largely through his exhortation Rerum Orientalium (1928) addressed to the world's bishops. By a decree of the Congregation for Catholic Education in 1971, the section of the Gregorian's canon law faculty pertaining to the Code of Canon Law for the Eastern Churches became its own faculty within the PIO. In 2000 the grand chancellor was the cardinal prefect of the Congregation for the Eastern Churches. Noted for studies of the Eastern Rites of the Church, the PIO has also been active as an ecumenical bridge between the Orthodox world and the Holy See. It houses a library of some 200,000 books and 2,500 periodicals. These served about 435 students in the year 2001, along with 52 faculty. The PIO publishes Orientalia Cristiana Periodica.

Pontificia Università Lateranense. The Pontifical Lateran University (PUL), under the chancellorship of the vicar of Rome, is organized into faculties and institutes. The four faculties are in theology, philosophy, civil law, and canon law. These last two faculties brought into being an institute that is the only one of its kind in the world, the Institutum Utriusque Iuris, for the study of both canon and civil law. It also contains the Pontifical Pastoral Institute, which has a special department for the social teaching of the Church. Formally recognized in May of 1996 by the Congregation for Catholic Education, this department can issue graduate degrees with a specialty in the Church's social doctrine. The PUL is home to the Religious Education Institute, Ecclesia Mater, which trains pastoral assistants and catechists. It was established by the Congregation for Catholic Education in 1973, and that same congregation formally approved its statutes on June 27, 1994, permitting it to grant the licentiate degree. One of the great achievements of the PUL is its publication of a 13-volume dictionary of saints, the Bibliotheca Sanctorum (ca. 1970), one of the most thorough reference works of its kind.

More than 30 institutes across the world are in some way linked to the Lateran, comprising a student body of over 6,000, from over 100 countries. One such institute is the Pontifical john paul ii institute for Studies on Marriage and the Family. It was founded by John Paul II on October 7, 1982 with the apostolic constitution Magnum Matrimonii Sacramentum, according it the power to grant both the licentiate and doctorate with concentrations in marriage and the family. Although housed at the PUL, it is an autonomous body by statutes approved by the pope on November 21, 1992 and March 17, 1993. Its satellites have multiplied to include branches in Washington, D.C. (1988), Mexico City (1996), and Valencia, Spain (1994).

Three additional institutions are closely linked by statute with the PUL, the "Alfonsiana," the "Augustinianum," and the "Claretianum."

The Alphonsian Academy is a higher institute of moral theology founded in 1949 by the redemptorists. On August 2, 1960, by a decree of the Sacred Congregation for Seminaries and Universities, the academy was elevated to full university status. Shortly after St. alphonsus liguori was proclaimed a doctor of the Church in 1871, the Redemptorists conceived the idea and began to make plans for the establishment of an institute dedicated to teaching and promoting the moral theology of St. Alphonsus. The Redemptorist General Chapter of 1894 approved a decree encouraging this. The first institute opened its doors in 1910 with six professors and 26 student priests. The faculty offered courses in dogmatic and moral theology, as well as canon law, philosophy, and Hebrew. The fledgling institute was forced to close its doors at the beginning of World War I. On February 9, 1949, Father Leonard Buijs, the Redemptorist superior general, founded the Alphonsian Academy as an internal institute of the Congregation. On March 25, 1957 the academy was formally recognized by the Vatican Congregation for Religious as a "public internal institute" entrusted to the Redemptorists, granting it the opportunity for extern students.

In 2001, the Alphonsian Academy was the academic home for over 287 post-graduate students, divided between the licentiate and doctoral programs. The students come from over 60 countries and all five continents. Twenty-eight professors, of whom 21 are Redemptorists, comprised the faculty. The Alphonsian Academy is responsible for publishing the journal Studia Moralia (1963).

The Library of the College of St. Alphonsus was founded in 1855, when the Redemptorist Fathers opened their General House in Rome. Its modest beginning came from the legacy of Cardinal Clement Villecourt (d. 1867). By 1905, the library already contained 20,000 volumes and was considered among the best ecclesiastical libraries of Rome. In 2001 it housed almost 165,000 volumes in its collection, with its major strength continuing to be in the field of moral theology.

The Patristic Institute Augustinianum was founded in 1905 as an official organ for the general curia of the Augustinian order. It affiliated with the PUL in 1969. It is known for its distinguished publishing repertoire under the banner Analecta Augustiniana. By 1939 it had established itself as one of the leading houses for critical editions of patristic texts in philosophy and theology, as well as medieval augustinianism. In 1961, the periodical Augustinianum was begun by the Patristic Institute of the PUL, treating all aspects of Christian antiquity and the Church fathers.

The Theological Institute on the Religious Life "Claretianum" was affiliated with the PUL in 1972 and is in the care of the Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (Claretian Fathers) on the Largo Lorenzo Mossa in Rome.

Pontificia Università Urbaniana. The Pontifical Urbanian University (PUU), the college of the Congregation for the evangelization of peoples (Propoganda Fidei), is an international seminary with almost 90 affiliates worldwide, constituting a student body of about 11,000. Located on the Gianicolo Hill, its large complex is the center for 1,250 students in Rome, representing about 100 nations. It had 156 faculty in 2000. The grand chancellor is the cardinal prefect of the Congregation and the vice-chancellor is the secretary of that dicastery. The PUU is overseen by a rector magnificus. It is open to clerical, religious, and lay students. Its library contains some 300,000 volumes and is strong in mission studies.

The PUU offers the doctorate in theology, philosophy, missiology, and canon law. In addition to these faculties, the PUU is also home to an Institute for Missionary Catechesis, founded in 1970 by the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. With the decree Cum catechesis pars of May 25, 1980, the Congregation for Catholic Education permitted this institute to issue baccalaureate degrees.

A number of joint programs emerged in the late 20th century. For instance, in 1986 the faculties of canon law and missiology began a joint venture. Similarly, by decree of the Congregation for Catholic Education, April 12, 1999, the faculty of missiology was given charge of the Higher Institute for Catechesis and Missionary Spirituality "Redemptoris Missio" in response to the John Paul II's encyclical letter of the same name.

Since 1949 there have been special sections devoted to languages, particularly those of Asian origin. In 1960, by university statute, the faculty of philosophy was placed in charge of administering the Higher Institute for the Study of Beliefs, Religion, and Culture. This institute, in turn, oversees two centers, one for the study of Chinese and the other, more generally, the Cardinal Newman Center, both of which were begun in 1975. John Henry Cardinal Newman was a student at the Urbaniana while preparing for ordination in 1847.

The PUU also boasts its own publishing organ, the Urbaniana University Press, founded on April 19, 1979. In addition to a book list, the press prints the theological journal Euntes Docete.

Pontificia Università di S. Tommaso d'Aquino in Urbe (Angelicum). The Pontifical University of St. Thomas in Rome, known as the Angelicum, is under the direction of the Order of Preachers (dominicans). The master general of these friars is the grand chancellor. The Angelicum is the descendent of the medieval studium of the Dominican Order in Rome. Beginning in 1698, it had at its disposition the Biblioteca Casanatense. In 1906, Pope Pius X changed the title of the College of Saint Thomas to the Pontifical Angelicum College, and allowed for the recognition of its academic degrees. In 1908, Father Hyacinth Cormier, master of the Order of Preachers, erected the Pontifical International College "Angelicum." Officials of the Italian government occupied the old building, constructed by Pius V, from 1873 to 1908, while the College of Saint Thomas operated on Via San Vitale. The government took control of the rich collection of manuscripts, palimpsests, and incunabula of the Biblioteca Casanatense. As part of a deal with Italian dictator Mussolini in 1931, a newer building was exchanged for the monastery's library. It has since grown to nearly a half million volumes.

In 1950 and 1955, respectively, the Institute of Spirituality and Social Sciences were added to the Angelicum. Founded in 1950 by Father Paul Philippe, OP (c. 1984), the Institute of Spirituality was approved by the Congregation for Seminaries and Educational Institutions on May 1, 1958. On March 7, 1963 (the feast of Saint Thomas), Pope John XXIII raised the school to the rank of a pontifical university through his motu proprio Dominicianus ordo. In the same year, a section of the theology faculty dedicated to ecumenism and patristics was erected in Bari, and in 1964, the Higher Institute of Religious Sciences Mater Ecclesiae, directed in particular to the laity, was annexed. In 1972, the Congregation for Catholic Education granted the Mater Ecclesiae power to issue graduate degrees. On Nov. 25, 1974, that same congregation allowed the Institute of Social Sciences to become a full-fledged university faculty.

Pope Paul VI visited the university in the spring of 1974 for the closing of the International Congress marking the 700th anniversary of the death of Saint Thomas. In his address, the pope emphasized the relevance of Thomism in the modern world, a position echoed by his successor, John Paul II, in his encyclical letter Fides et ratio (§§ 4344). In 1983, the Institute of Saint Thomas was established to promote the study of the works of the Angelic Doctor. The school's periodical, Angelicum, continues this exploration of St. Thomas's thought.

Pontificia Università Salesiana. The Pontifical Salesian University is under the care of the Society of St. Don Bosco (Salesians). The head of the Salesian order is the grand chancellor. The school's rector, also a Salesian, oversees the faculties of theology, canon law, philosophy, education, and social communication. By his motu proprio Magisterium vitae of May 24, 1973, Paul VI elevated the Ateneo Salesiano to university status and granted it the title "pontifical." In 2001 the library of the Salesiana contained around 700,000 volumes and the largest number of serials in the URBE network, approximately 4,800 titles. These serve the needs of nearly 200 professors and over 1,600 students.

Among the oldest of the university's faculties is the education department, begun and shepherded by the Brazilian Salesian Carlos Leóncio da Silva, dean from 1940 to 1952. Paul VI made the Higher Institute for Pedagogy into a full-fledged faculty of education studies. The pope took the occasion to link the importance of the faculty with the charisma of Don Bosco. Education continues to be of prime interest to the university, as typified by the important collective work by this faculty, the threevolume Enciclopedia delle Scienze dell'Educazione and the Dizionario di Scienze dell'educazione (1997).

By a decree of the Congregation for Catholic Education, dated June 29, 1986, the Higher Institute for Religious Studies "Magisterium Vitae" was granted the power to award graduate degrees. On May 27, 1998, that same congregation elevated the Institute for the Study of Social Communications, created in 1988, to a permanent faculty.

The faculty of Christian letters and classics includes a Pontifical Higher Institute for Latin. Though recognized independently in the Annuario Pontificio, it is actually semi-autonomous. Its impetus was Pope John XXIII's apostolic constitution Verum Sapientia (art. 6) and made concrete by the action of Paul VI in his creation of the Pontificium Institutum Altioris Latinitatis through his motu proprio Studia latinitatis of Feb. 22, 1964. The institute's status was remanded to the Congregation for Catholic Education, which eventually wed it to the philosophy faculty of the Salesianum in 1971.

Pontificia Università della Santa Croce. The Pontifical University of the Holy Cross is under the care of the personal prelature of opus dei. The grand chancellor of the university is the prelate of Opus Dei. The university is the realization of a desire of Blessed Josemaría escrivÁ, the founder of Opus Dei, to promote a Roman educational institution at the service of the whole Church. Blessed Josemaría's successor, Monsignor Alvaro del portillo, sought the approval of the Holy See for the project. This it granted by a decree of the Congregation for Catholic Education on Jan. 9, 1985, erecting the Centro Academico Romano della Santa Croce and linking it to the canon law faculty of the University of Navarra. Five years later to the day, this same congregation canonically erected the Ateneo Romano della Santa Croce, conferring upon it the right to grant academic degrees in theology and philosophy. On March 28, 1993 the canon law faculty was erected and on June 26, 1995 Pope John Paul II raised this institution to the status of a pontifical college. By a similar act of July 15, 1998, he bestowed on it the title pontifical university. At the turn of the millennium, the university had faculties of theology, canon law, philosophy, and the communications of social institutions, the latter of which was erected on Feb. 26, 1996, and given the power to grant licentiate and doctorate degrees. The Higher Institute of Religious Studies "Apollinare" has been subsumed within the theology department and has a faculty specializing in distance learning. It was established as a university entity on Sept. 17, 1986, but it was not until an act of the Congregation for Catholic Education on June 10, 1998 that it was enabled to grant graduate degrees in religious studies.

The faculty publishes Annales Theologici, Ius Ecclesiae, Apollinare Studi, and Acta Philosophica. The student body, which for the academic year 1999 and 2000 numbered nearly 1,300, was drawn from over 60 countries. Of these, 541 students were in the Apollinare. Aptly, the university campus is in the Palazzo di Sant'Apollinare. Both Pius XII and John XXIII were students in the Apollinare, from 1895 to 1903 and from 1901 to 1905, respectively. The library is housed in the via di Farnesi, near the Church of St. Girolamo della Carità, and possesses some 75,000 volumes.

Pontificia Ateneo di S. Anselmo. The College of Sant'Anselmo in Rome (Anselmianum) is an institute of theological studies operated by the Cassinese Congregation of the Order of Saint Benedict. Its grand chancellor is the Abbot Primate of the Benedictine confederation. Founded in the 17th century, it was granted the right to confer academic degrees by Leo XIII on Aug. 20, 1891. This was confirmed by Pope Piux X in his motu proprio Praeclara inter opera of June 24, 1914, in which he decreed "that the College of Sant'Anselmo, like the other academies of Rome, should have the privilege of conferring all academic degrees in philosophy, sacred theology, and canon law upon both diocesan and religious seminarians."

The Monastic Institute was erected as a division of the Faculty of Theology by decree of the Sacred Congregation for Seminaries and Universities on March 21, 1952. Among its faculty have been such noted scholars as K. Hallinger, B. Steidle, J. Leclercq, B. Studer, J. Gribomont, and A. de Vogüé. Since 1977 its program of teaching and research has concentrated on the preparation of students for the licentiate and doctorate in monastic studies. The institute also attempts to respond to the new demands of monasteries and of the Church by extending its interests to the study of Eastern monasticism, to ecumenical concerns, and to the emerging communities of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

The Pontifical Liturgical Institute was erected by a decree of June 17, 1961 with its own statutes. By a decree of the Congregation for Catholic Education on Dec. 8, 1977, the Pontifical Liturgical Institute was incorporated into the Abbey of Santa Giustina in Padua and remains an affiliate of the campus in Rome. With a decree of Aug. 23, 1978, that same congregation raised the Pontifical Liturgical Institute to the level of a faculty with the authority to grant the license (SL.L.) and doctorate (SL.D.) in sacred liturgy. The general statutes of the Athenaeum and those of the faculties of philosophy, sacred theology, and sacred liturgy were approved by the Congregation for Catholic Education on April 21, 1987. Beginning in 1970, the theology faculty offered courses leading to the license and doctorate with specializations in sacramental theology. In the academic year 1997 and 1998, the faculty of philosophy began a new cycle leading to the license and doctorate with a specialization in philosophy and mysticism. A number of seminary programs in Italy are affiliated with the Anselmianum. In 2001 its library numbered approximately 100,000 volumes, serving about 400 faculty and students.

Pontificio Ateneo "Antonianum." The Pontifical College "Antonianum" is under the care of the Friars Minor, with the minister general of these franciscans as grand chancellor. The vicar-general of the order is the vice-chancellor. The initial college, founded in 1887, was formally created the Collegium S. Antonii Patavini in Urbe by Leo XIII in 1890. In more recent times, the Antonianum has grown to include two off-site institutes, more notable of which is its house of biblical studies in Jerusalem. This Franciscan Biblicum's statutes were redrawn on Feb. 28, 1989 to reflect the changes brought on by the apostolic constitution Sapientia Christiana. Additionally, there is the Institute for Ecumenical Studies in Venice. The theology faculty allows its students to specialize in dogmatics, spirituality, evangelization, moral theology, church history, and Franciscan history. On site, the Franciscan Institute of Spirituality (coordinated with the Capuchin friars), the Higher School for the Study of Medieval and Franciscan History, and the Higher Institute for Religious Studies "Redemptor Hominis," comprise additional institutes within the college. The Higher School for the Study of Medieval and Franciscan History is a member of the International Federation of Institutes for Medieval Studies (F.I.D.E.M.). The "Redemptor Hominis," so named for John Paul II's first encyclical letter, was begun in 1982, but it was canonically erected by the Congregation for Catholic Education on July 31, 1986. It seeks to bring "intelligence to the faith" in the training of catechists and others in pastoral service. Lastly, the International Scotist Commission, producing critical editions of the works of John duns scotus, is located at the Antonianum.

The library possesses nearly half a million volumes, with particular strengths in Franciscana. It boasts a large number of incunabula that are, as of the year 2001, at the disposal of about 460 students and 110 professors. The multi-lingual periodical Antonianum has been published quarterly since 1926, giving special attention to sacred scripture, theology (dogmatic, moral, and pastoral), history (of the Church, of theology, of spirituality), canon law, philosophy, the human sciences, and especially medieval and Franciscan studies.

Pontificio Ateneo "Regina Apostolorum." Directed by the legionaries of christ, the Pontifical Athenaeum "Regina Apostolorum" was canonically erected by the Congregation for Catholic Education on Sept. 15, 1993, with a faculty of theology and philosophy. The superior general of the Legionaries is the grand chancellor and the Athenaeum is overseen by a "retorre magnifico." On July 11, 1998, John Paul II granted it the title "pontifical." It maintains an information center on the human sciences and a center for telecommunications. On April 23, 1999, the Congregation for Catholic Education erected the Higher Institute for Religious Studies "Regina Apostolorum" within the theology faculty and gave it the power to grant the graduate degree Magisterium in Scientiis Religiosis.

The Regina Apostolorum encourages certain pious devotions among its students and faculty, which at the turn of the millennium numbered 529 and 59, respectively. On the first Friday of each month, the Athenaeum community is invited to participate in adoration of the Blessed Sacrament which is solemnly exposed in the chapel. This adoration is offered for the special intentions of the Holy Father. Also, a plenary indulgence may be obtained (under the normal conditions) by visiting the Athenaeum Chapel on March 25 (Feast of the Annunciation), September 15 (Feast of the Virgin of Sorrows), December 12 (Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe), December 25 (Feast of the Nativity of Our Lord), and on the Solemnity of the Sacred Heart.

Presently, the library of the Athenaeum contains more than 102,000 volumes and receives over 400 different publications. The library was enriched in 1993 by the acquisition of the De la Torre Villar Latin American collection consisting of over 13,000 volumes. The faculty publish a multilingual journal titled Alpha and Omega.

Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra. Located on the Via di Torre Rossa, the institute offers various music and liturgical disciplinesfor instance, organography and Gregorian chantwith particular attention given to the practical, theoretical, and historical aspects expressed in the diverse cultures that comprise the Church. It trains musicians and forms teachers of sacred music for service around the world. The grand chancellor is the cardinal prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education. It has an honorary president and a rector and a faculty of some 20 church musicians.

The institute offers the baccalaureate, the license, and the master's degree in a specialized field. Courses leading to the doctoral degree are also offered. The library is structured to cater to the needs of didactic liturgical activities, as well as for research within the institute. The reading room now occupies the spacious areas previously used by the Commission for the New Vulgate.

Pontificio Istituto di Archeologia Cristiana. The Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology was created by the motu proprio I primitivi cemeteri of Pius XI on Dec. 11, 1925. Its grand chancellor is the cardinal prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education. In the year 2000, it was the only institute of all the Atenei Romani that had a lay person as rector. Located on the Via Napoleone III, this institute has a fivefold mission. First, it is to gather and place at the researcher's disposal all those tools that will permit the scientific study of monuments and early Christian institutions (photographs, reproductions, books, journals, etc.). Second, it seeks to promote the scientific study of the ancient world generally and the antiquities of Christian Rome in particular. Third, the institute must develop new methodologies for the study of the Christian monuments of Rome, especially in their application to knowledge of the meanings of visible objects. These methodologies may be undertaken either in personal research questions, the exploration of the teaching of sacred archaeology or the institutions of the early Church, or conservation techniques. Fourth, the institute publishes the Revista di Archeologia Cristiana (1926), together with important monographs on catacombs, monuments, inscriptions, pictures, and sculpture relative to early Christianity. Fifth, it acts as the center for the promotion of the International Congress of Christian Archeology, which meets occasionally in various cities.

Students in this institute enroll in a three-year course for the doctorate. A second course of studies, lasting one year, allows one to obtain a certificate.

Pontificia Facoltà Teologica "San Bonaventura" (Seraphicum). The Theological Faculty of St. Bonaventure is under the direction of the Friars Minor Conventual in Rome. Its patrons are St. anthony of padua (the Evangelical Doctor) and St. bonaventure of Bagnoregio (the Seraphic Doctor), for whom the faculty is named. Erected on June 24, 1905 as the Collegio Serafico Internazionale di San Francesco, the faculty has its roots in the "studi generali" of the Franciscan order. It is thereby the oldest of all the Roman faculties, with its first impulse arising from Franciscan Minister General Elias of Assisi in 1236 and later Alexander of Hales, although it does not possess an unbroken tenure. After the suppression of religious orders in 1873 by the Italian government, it would be 37 years before the Franciscans could re-engage their work.

On July 15, 1561, through his apostolic letter Ut ampliores et uberiores fructus, Pius IV allowed the minister general of the Friars Minor Conventual to permit his faculty to grant the master's degree in the arts and theology. When Sixtus V formally inaugurated the faculty as a Roman college in 1587, he ennobled it with a cardinal protector. Sixtus V, himself a Conventual Franciscan, desired the college to concentrate on the thought of St. Bonaventure, later writing this into the college's statutes by the decree Cum nuper of April 13, 1590. In 1629, a number of Franciscan studia were granted the power to confer the doctorate, including the house in Rome. Extern students were allowed to enroll when the Congregation for Catholic Education approved the faculty's new statutes on March 14, 1973.

Among its distinguished alumni are Lorenzo Ganganelli, who would become Pope Clement XIV (d. 1774), and St. Maximillian Kolbe, who attended from 1912 to 1919. The present site of the Seraphicum is a short distance from the location of St. Paul's martyrdom. The building was formally inaugurated on January 4, 1964. The minister general of the Friars Minor Conventual is the grand chancellor. The faculty maintains a number of affiliations with other Franciscan institutes in Italy and abroad.

Pontificia Facoltà Teologica e Pontificio Instituto di Spiritualità "Teresianum." The Pontifical Faculty of Theology and the Pontifical Institute of Spirituality "Teresianum" are directed by the Discalced carmelites of Saints Teresa of Jesus and John of the Cross. The general of the Discalced Carmelite order is the grand chancellor. Through the efforts of the order's superior, William of St. Albert (18781947), and at the behest of previous general chapters, the college opened on November 14, 1926 for the theological and spiritual formation of postulants. In 1935 the faculty was authorized to grant licentiate and doctoral degrees in sacred theology. Two of the Carmelite fathers general, Siverio of St. Teresa (18781954) and his predecessor, Pier Thomas of the Virgin of Carmel (18961946), were able to construct the present campus in the Piazza San Pancrazio in 1954, with a solemn inauguration occurring in April of 1955.

In 1973 a revision of the Teresianum's statutes was approved by the Congregation for Catholic Education, permitting students to specialize either in theological anthropology, unique among the Atenei Romani, or spirituality, through the Institute of Spirituality. This institute, originally founded in 1957, was the hope of Father Gabriel of St. Mary Magdalene (d. 1953) and the Carmelite General Chapter of 1955. The Institute of Spirituality was canonically linked to the theology faculty on Sept. 8, 1964, by the Congregation for Seminaries and Universities. Thereafter it was empowered to grant the license and doctorate in sacred theology with a specialization in spiritual theology. For many years, the institute grew more autonomous from the rest of the Teresianum, both by virtue of its specialization and its statutory construction. Under the norms of the apostolic constitution Sapientia Christiana, the institute sought to re-establish its old links to the rest of the faculty, and on April 8, 1988, the Congregation for Catholic Education formally acknowledged the "Pontificia Facoltà Teologica Teresianum e l'Istituto di Spiritualità."

On April 28, 1987 the Congregation for Catholic Education incorporated the International Institute of Pastoral Theology Camillianum into the Teresianum. This is under the direction of the Camillians, who minister to the infirm. The same congregation aggregated to the Teresianum the Pontifical Faculty Studium de Notre Dame de Vie, with its center in Venasque, France, on Sept. 21, 1993, as well as the Theological Institute Leoniano di Anagni on June 21, 1995.

The Teresianum's library was started in 1735, when the headquarters of the Discalced Carmelites in the convent of Santa Maria della Scala was situated in the Palazzo Barberini. In 1896 it received a major gift when Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta bequeathed to it his library. Similarly, the two Carmelite cardinals, Gerolamo Maria Gotti (d. 1916) and Adeodato Giovanni Piazza (d. 1957), provided significant accessions from their personal collections. In 2001 the library possessed some 350,000 volumes, with important collections on Discalced Carmelite missions and spirituality.

Pontificia Facoltà Teologica "Marianum." The Pontifical Faculty of Theology "Marianum" is an academic institution entrusted to the care of the Order of the Servants of Mary (the servites). The prior general of the Servite order is the grand chancellor. On Jan. 1, 1971, with the decree of the Congregation for Catholic Education "Theologicas Collegii S. Alexi Falconierii Scholas," the faculty received the title "pontifical." It conferred all the rights granted to other pontifical universities and faculties, including permission to grant academic degrees with specializations in Mariology.

The faculty seeks to promote Christian theological reflection on the figure of the Virgin Mary through the six degree programs that it offers: a two-year certificate program in Marian theology; a three-year baccalaureate in theology; a two-year master's program in theology specializing in Marian theology; a doctoral program in theology specializing in Marian theology; a two-year certificate program in religious studies; and a two-year certificate program in the history and spirituality of the Order of the Servants of Mary. In 2000 it was home to 47 professors and 215 students, both clerical and lay.

Founded in 1950, the Marianum library is the successor of two previous Servite theological libraries in Rome, namely, the Henry of Ghent College library (16661870) and that of its successor school, Saint Alexis Falconieri International College library (18951950). In 1917 the Servants of Mary formalized a Marian section in the Saint Alexis library as part of an International Marian Center. As the library of the Marianum Pontifical Faculty of Theology, the Marian collection became its primary concern. By 2000 it numbered about 20,000 volumes and was one of the world's largest collections on the subject. In 1946 Pius XII placed about 3,000 volumes dealing with Marian subjects in the custody of the library. In 1956 Pius XII gave the library all of the documentation sent to the Holy See on the occasion of the Marian Year of 1954. In August of 1988, the Holy See's secretary of state gave the library the archive of the Consilium Primarium Anno Mariali, pertaining to the Marian Year of 1987 and 1988. Another section, while incomplete, nevertheless contains the largest amount of material on the Servite order in the world. In 2001, the library had a collection of about 105,000 books and close to 1,400 serials.

The faculty publishes the journal Marianum, founded in 1939 by Fr. Gabriele M. Roschini, O.S.M. as a multi-lingual periodical concentrating on Marian theology, especially from the Christological, ecclesiological, and ecumenical perspectives, and studies of the figure of Mary in doctrinal, historico-cultural, literary, and artistic aspects.

Pontificio Istituto di Studi Arabi e d'Islamistica.

The Pontifical Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies began in Tunisia in 1926 and was canonically erected by the Congregation for Seminaries and Universities on March 19, 1960. It is directed by the Missionaries of Africa. The cardinal prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education is the grand chancellor and the superior general of the Missionaries of Africa is the vice-chancellor. It was given the title "Institut Pontifical d'Etudes Orientales" and charged with developing pastoral sensitivities among clergy and laity to the Arabic language and letters, as well as the religion and institutions of Islam. In 1964 it was transferred to Rome, where later the Holy See renamed it the "Pontificio Istituto di Studi Arabi." It is located on the Viale di Trastevere. The Congregation for Catholic Education, through decrees of May 18, 1965; May 19, 1966; and May 25, 1980, enabled the institute to confer the doctorate under the norms of its statutes.

Pontificia Facoltà di Scienze dell'Educazione "Auxilium." The Pontifical Faculty of the Science of Education "Auxilium" was canonically erected by the Congregation for Catholic Education under the name of the "Instituto delle Figlie di Maria Ausiliatrice" on June 27, 1970. At the end of 1954, the original Instituto delle Figlie di Maria Ausiliatrice was founded in Torino as the International Institute of Pedagogy and Religious Studies. It was reconstituted by the Congregation for Religious on July 13, 1956. On Jan. 31, 1966, through a decree of the Congregation for Seminaries and Universities, this institute was incorporated into the Higher Institute for Pedagogy at the Pontificio Ateneo Salesiano in Rome. It was made juridically and academically autonomous by statute in 1970. However, it has kept its links to the Salesianum insofar as the institute's grand chancellor is the major rector of the Society of Don Bosco, who is also the grand chancellor of the Salesianum. In 1978 the faculty occupied a site in Rome along the Via Cremolina. On July 25, 1986, the Auxilium was given power to confer the graduate degree of "Magisterium in Scientiis Religiosis" within the Higher Institute for Religious Studies. In 2000 there were 53 faculty members and 364 students enrolled. The library collection numbered about 50,000 volumes, with 663 periodicals.

Bibliography: Gregorian. Annuaria Pontifica (2000): 18331835, 2008. p. caraman, University of the Nations: The Story of the Gregorian University with Its Associated Institutes, the Biblical and Oriental, 15511962 (New York 1981). e. des places, "L'Institut Biblique de Rome," La Nouvelle Revue des Deux Mondes (October 1975). e. g. farrugia, The Pontifical Oriental Institute: The First Seventy-Five Years, 19171992 (Rome 1993). c. gallagher, "Cenni storici sulla Facoltà di Dritto Canonico," Periodica de Re Morali, Canonica, Liturgica 66 (1977): 407421. Lateran. Annuaria Pontifica (2000): 18351837,2009. Urbaniana. ibid., 1837, 2010. Angelicum. ibid., 1838, 20102011. Salesianum. ibid., 18381839, 2011. j. e. vecchi, Decreto di Pormulgazione degli Statuti dell'Università Pontificia Salesiana, Prot. N. 01/2000, with accompanying "Statuti Generali" (Rome 2000). Santa Croce. Annuaria Pont. (2000): 1839,2012. Anselmianum. ibid., 1840, 20122013. g. j. bÉkÉs, ed., Sant'Anselmo: Saggi storici e di attualità (Rome 1988). p. engelbert, Geschichte des Benediktinerkollegs St. Anselm in Rom: von den Anfägen (1888) bis zur Gegenwart (Rome 1988). Antonianum. Annuaria Pontontifica (2000): 18401841, 2013. Pontificium Athenaeum Antonianum ab origine ad praesens (Rome 1970). Regina Apotolorum. Annuaria Pontontifica (2000): 1841, 2013. Pontifical Higher Institute of Latin and Faculty of Christian Letters and Classics. ibid., 1841, 2014. Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music. ibid., 18411842, 2014. Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology. ibid., 1842, 20142015. Seraphicum. ibid., 31842, 2015. Teresianum. ibid., 18421843, 2016. Statuta Facultatis Theologicae Collegii Internationalis SS. Teresiae a Iesu et Ioannis a Cruce Ordinis Carmelitarum Discalceatorum Romae, 1936. Marianum. Annuaria Pontontifica (2000): 1843, 2016. Pontifical Institute for Arab and Islamic Studies. ibid., pp. 1843, 2017. Auxilium. ibid., 1844, 2017.

[m. j. costelloe/

p. j. hayes]

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Pontifical Roman Universities

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