Liturgical Movement, I: Catholic

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Grounded in the theology of the mystical body of christ, the Liturgical Movement aimed at recovering full and active liturgical participation for all members of the Church. This part treats the Movement's origin, purpose, and history within the Catholic Church.

Origin. The 19th century was a time of tremendous intellectual activity in Europe. While great thinkers like darwin, hegel, hume, marx, and engels were developing their own theories and philosophies, theological giants like J. M. sailer, J. hirscher, and especially J. A. mÖhler and M. scheeben were calling for a return to the Pauline concept of the Church as the mystical body of Christ. As the biblical movement and biblical theology served to focus the attention of liturgical pioneers on Sacred Scripture and salvation history, the patristic movement recovered a rich understanding of the Church and its communitarian sacramental system. The Liturgical Movement in Europe was born within such a milieu.

The founding of the Liturgical Movement is usually attributed to Dom Prosper guÉranger (180575), the restorer of the French Benedictine Congregation at solesmes in 1833. It must be stated, however, that even prior to Guéranger, one finds considerable movement toward liturgical reform through efforts at increasing lay participation in the Eucharist and the Liturgy of the Hours. The 17th through 19th centuries in France was a time of great liturgical creativity. Although these innovations began only as minor additions to the Roman liturgy, each diocese in France eventually had its own liturgy. Moreover, proposals for greater participation within the liturgy were voiced by the Fathers present at the Synod of pistoia (1786), although without success.

Finally, as we consider the birth of the Liturgical Movement in 19th-century France, similarities with the Anglican Communion's oxford movement should not be overlooked. Both movements were concerned with a return to the sources; both exerted an influence outside the churches in which they were born; both were influenced to some degree by the Romantic movement; and in the end, both were concerned with a more profound understanding of the mystery of the Church.

The French liturgical movement. It is ironic that Guéranger is usually considered the founder of the Liturgical Movement. His approach was highly subjective, often leading him to inaccurate liturgical conclusions,e.g. calling for a return to the Middle Ages as the period of the highest liturgical development. Moreover, he saw in the French liturgical innovations a lack of fidelity to tradition, attributing the state of the French Church to jansenism and gallicanism. Thus, rather than continuing the liturgical experimentation found elsewhere in France, the Eucharist and Divine Office at Solesmes were celebrated strictly according to the Roman Rite. Despite Guéranger's fierce critique, however, some of the very innovations he criticized were later incorporated into the liturgical reforms of Pope Pius X at the beginning of the 20th century, and eventually into the Roman liturgy itself. Without denying his limitations, Guéranger's contribution to the liturgical and monastic revival in Europe cannot be underestimated. His goal was to restore the liturgy with the Eucharist as primary focus, making it more central to the cenobitic monastic life. Further, the church year became the paradigm for the daily life and rhythm of the monastery. Accordingly, he developed his famous work L'Année Liturgique (begun in Advent of 1841), with the intention of writing a pastoral commentary on the entire liturgical year at the service of parish priests and their parishioners. He completed only nine of the proposed twelve volumes prior to his death. In that same year, he founded Institutions liturgiques, a more scholarly journal offering serious articles that would respond to liturgical problems and abuses within France, and offer a solid, proper instruction in the Roman liturgy. Guéranger promoted a return to Gregorian chant as the official liturgical music of the Catholic Church. He encouraged chant in place of popularized liturgical music in vogue at the time. Although the Liturgical Movement in France did not grow until years later, Guéranger's influence held sway throughout the 19th century, not only in France, but also in Germany and Belgium, especially in those monasteries founded by Solesmes.

The German liturgical movement. The German movement began at the Benedictine monastery of beuron, re-founded in 1863 by the brothers Maurus and Placidus Wolter, who desired to offer the Church in Germany the same spirit of monastic and liturgical reform that Solesmes had offered the Church in France. Maurus Wolter spent several months at Solesmes in 1862, and was impressed both by the monastic observance and the monastic liturgy celebrated there. When he returned to Germany and joined his brother in re-founding the monastery at Beuron the following year, the influence of Guéranger could be seen. A study of the early years at Beuron reveals a great admiration and respect for the classic Roman liturgy, not unlike Solesmes. Both the monastic liturgy and overall governance were strictly controlled by Solesmes in the early years, leaving its distinctive mark on that monastery's life and worship. The nascent Liturgical Movement in Germany soon bore fruit. In 1884 Dom Anselm Schott published the first German-Latin Missal, Das Messbuch der Hl. Kirche ; the Vesperbuch followed in 1893. Each volume contained explanations taken from Guéranger's L'Année Liturgique. Beuron was also known for its famous art school founded by Dom Desiderius Lenz, which had tremendous influence on Church art well beyond the shores of Europe. Lenz worked at establishing artistic unity within one liturgical space, thereby fostering a harmonic relationship between liturgy and art.

In 1893, the monks of Beuron re-founded the German monastery of maria laach (near Cologne) that had been suppressed by Napolean in 1803. Under the leadership of Abbot Ildefons Herwegen and two of his monks, Kunibert mohlberg and Odo casel, in collaboration with the young diocesan priest, Romano guardini, and with the aid of two professors, Franz J. dÖlger and Anton baumstark, the Liturgical Movement in Germany gained momentum. They organized a three-fold series of publications which were begun in 1918: Ecclesia Orans, Liturgiegeschichtliche Quellen and Liturgiegeschichtliche Forschungen. Moreover, the wellknown journal Jarbuch für Liturgiewissenschaft was founded at the monastery in 1921. There is no question that Odo Casel (+1948) was the theologian of the German movement and one of its key players. He came under the influence of Herwegen while studying at the University of Bonn, and entered the monastery in 1905, at least in part through Herwegen's mentorship. In the thirty years that followed, he wrote hundreds of articles and a number of books, and not unlike other great minds, his writings were initially considered highly controversial. His classic text, Das christliche Kultmysterium, argued that the pagan mystery cults were a preparation for the mysteries of the Christian sacraments. Even though Casel's theory is no longer espoused by sacramental theologians, his work gave way to a rich understanding of the Church as the mystical body of Christ which expresses itself symbolically through sacramental participation. While Maria Laach was known for its cultivation of liturgical science, it did not limit its activities to the academic. With the permission of Abbot Herwegen, the first Missa recitata was celebrated in the monastery's crypt chapel on Aug. 6, 1921, under the presidency of Prior Albert Hammenstede. The celebration took place in Latin, but included the praying of the Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei in common, as well as responses involving the entire assembly. Those who attended the Mass also participated in the Offertory procession, reviving the ancient practice of bringing their own bread to the altar. Despite episcopal approval for the liturgical experiments, rumors quickly spread in the Rhineland that the monks of Maria Laach were advocating a lay priesthood and attempting to "Protestantize" the Church and its worship.

There was other pastoral involvement registered in those years, thanks to the strength of the German youth movement and related organizations. Johannes Pinsk (+1957), university chaplain in Berlin, and Romano guardini (+1968) at Burg Rothenfels were pastorally involved in promoting participative liturgy, especially for the more significant feasts of the Church years. Leaders like Guardini were also involved in collaborating with leading secular architects of the day in creating liturgical architecture that facilitated participative worship. With the founding of the Liturgical Institute at Trier after World War II, the movement saw other names emerging like Balthasar Fischer and Johannes Wagner. Austrian liturgist Josef Andreas jungmann, S.J. (+1975), did his own part to collaborate with his German colleagues. Liturgical pioneering in Germany was not limited to men, as demonstrated in the recent study by Teresa Berger of Duke University. Aemiliana Löhr (+1972), a Benedictine nun of the Abbey of Holy Cross at Herstelle, was greatly influenced by the monastery's chaplain and her mentor, Odo Casel, and she carried the torch through her own writingsmore than three hundred articles, not to mention books. There were other women in that same monastery who, even though trained in philosophy or medicine, soon took up the task of promoting the liturgical renewal upon entrance into the convent. Like their male counterparts, these Benedictine women were encouraged and promoted in their own pioneering and scholarship by monks like Herwegen and Casel.

It must be noted, however, that Germany was not the first country to witness the effect of an organized Liturgical Movement. Prior to the founding of Maria Laach, the monks of Beuron were already planting seeds of liturgical renewal elsewhere in Europe: Maredsous in Belgium, Emmaus-Prague in Czechoslovakia, and Seckau in Austria. Maredsous, and later Mont César (also in Belgium) were the most liturgically significant of these new monastic foundations.

The Belgian liturgical movement. The Benedictine monastery of maredsous was founded by Maurus Wolter (then Abbot of Beuron) in 1872. It soon became famous for its liturgical publishing and would later inspire the young American Benedictine student Virgil michel to initiate a similar publishing venture in the United States. In 1882 Dom Gérard van Caloen, rector of the Abbey School at Maredsous, published the first French Latin missal, Missel des fidéles. One year later, in a talk at a French Eucharistic congress, he advocated lay participation in the Mass, bringing about his removal as school rector. Two years later, he founded the review Messager des fidèles (later Revue bénédictine ), the first publication intended to be an instrument of promoting the Liturgical Movement. The monastery of Mont César was founded in 1899 by Robert Kerchove (+1942), along with several other monks from Maredsous. The liturgical influence of Solesmes, Beuron, and Maredsous was influential, and liturgical publishing quickly became an apostolate of that new monastic foundation, as well. In 1910 Les Questions liturgiques was founded, and in the summer of 1912 the monastery initiated the famous sémaines liturgiques held each yearthe primary means of communicating the message of the Liturgical Movement.

The Belgian movement is known principally for its pastoral focus, thanks to the leadership of Lambert beauduin, O.S.B. (+1960). Beauduin had been a labor chaplain with the Aumôniers du Travail as a diocesan priest in Liége, and was deeply influenced by the workers whom he served and their social problems. Even prior to his association with the Aumôniers, he was known for his strong social consciousness and his compassion for the downtrodden. In 1906 he left his labor chaplaincy and diocese, and entered the monastery of Mont César, where he came into contact with the Irish Benedictine Colomba Marmion (+1923). Like Beauduin, Marmion had also been a diocesan priest prior to entering the monastery. Both monks saw liturgical prayer as foundational to their monastic life and shared a deep love for the liturgy of the hours. Beauduin soon became convinced of liturgy's transformative power within a secularized world and as the necessary grounding for Christian social activism.

The official beginning of the Liturgical Movement in Belgium is usually traced to September of 1909, during the National Congress of Catholic Works at Malines. In fact, many chroniclers of the Liturgical Movement prefer this event to mark the beginning of the European Liturgical Movement, rather than Guéranger and Solesmes. At that conference, Beauduin delivered a talk entitled "La vraie prière de l'Eglisé " in which he called for full and active participation of all people in Church life and especially in its worship. He based his remarks on the Motu Proprio of Pius X (Nov. 22, 1903) which described the liturgy as the Church's true and indispensable source. During the conference, he met Godefroid Kurth, an historian and prominent Catholic layman at the time, who shared Beauduin's dream of full and active liturgical participation. Together, they devised a practical plan to launch the Liturgical Movement. In 1914 Beauduin published La piété de l'Eglise (Louvain, 1914), intended to be a public declaration of the Liturgical Movement with a solid theological and ecclesiological foundation. Beauduin's success as a liturgical pioneer is due in large part to his capacity to integrate his liturgical vision with a healthy pragmatism.

Through Beauduin's efforts and the collaboration of othersamong them, his confrére Dom Eugéne Vandeur (+1968), Bernard Botte (+1980), and the Benedictine nuns at the monastery of Ancilla Domini at Wépion (founded in 1917 by Vandeur)the liturgy in Belgium was restored to the assembly. Complex theological ideas were popularized, providing greater access for ordinary Catholics to the Church's rich theological treasury. Eucharistic adoration during Mass was opposed since it conflicted with the Eucharist being celebrated. Influenced by his experience as a labor chaplain, Beauduin advocated a shorter eucharistic fast allowing for greater participation at the principal sung Eucharist on Sunday mornings. Ahead of his time, he promoted the controversial "dialogue Mass." Beauduin's vision included a great passion for ecumenism, particularly regarding Anglican and Orthodox Christians. He was convinced that the Anglican Church should be invited to return to communion with the bishop of Rome without having to be completely absorbed in the Roman Catholic Church. He suggested that Anglicans might continue to maintain their liturgical and disciplinary autonomy in much the way Eastern Catholics preserved that same autonomy while remaining in communion with Rome. In 1925 he founded a monastery at Amay sur Meuse (later chevetogne) as a monastic contribution to the unity of the churches, directed to the relationship between eastern and western Christianity.

The Austrian liturgical movement. Under the leadership of Augustinian Canon Pius parsch (+1954) the Austrian movement registered similar pastoral concerns as evidenced in Belgium. Greatly influenced by developments at Maria Laach, Parsch gave German liturgical scholarship a pastoral expression, using his own parish church of St. Gertrude (near his monastery of Klosterneuburg) as testing ground. Taking the best of the biblical, catechetical, liturgical, and patristic movements, he brought about an integration on the pastoral level that was largely unmatched elsewhere in Europe. In 1923 he initiated Das Jahr des Heiles, a pastoral commentary on the Eucharist and Liturgy of the Hours for the entire liturgical year. An even more significant publication was Bibel und Liturgie, founded in 1926, as an attempt to encourage wider readership of the Bible among Catholics, and to promote the relationship between liturgy and Scripture. He preached that the Eucharist is a sacrifice offered by the entire parish community and a sacrificial meal eaten in common; he also insisted on a proper and expanded use of Sacred Scripture within the liturgy.

Elsewhere in Europe. In England, significant developments included the founding of the Henry Bradshaw Society (1890), "for the purpose of printing liturgical MSS and rare editions of service books and illustrative documents on an historical and scientific basis"; and the Alcuin Club (1899) with its series of Tracts and Proceedings that have been an invaluable service to liturgical scholars throughout the entire 20th century. Also in 1899, the classic address of Edmund bishop (+1917) at Oxford, "The Genius of the Roman Rite," has had profound impact on liturgical scholarship. Years later, the Society of St. Gregory was founded in 1929 with its periodical Music and Liturgy and its summer schools; the English Liturgy Society (1943) founded by Samuel Gosling focused largely on the promotion of vernacular liturgy, and the collaboration of British liturgical pioneers Donald Attwater; Charles Cunliffe; C. C. Martindale, S.J.; and Clifford Howell, S.J..

Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Ireland did not witness the same level of participation as seen in other parts of Europe. There are, however, several key developments worth noting. In 1914, Italian Benedictines at Finalpia, Savona, inaugurated Rivista Liturgica as the chief organ of communication for Italian liturgical pioneers. A leading figure in the Italian movement was Abbot Emmanuele Caronti, O.S.B., whose text La pietà liturgica (Turin, 1921) promoted an ecclesial piety grounded in a solid liturgical spirituality. An even greater contribution, however, was his Messale festivo per i fedeli (Turin,1921), opening up the riches of the Church's liturgical treasury to large numbers of Italian Catholics. In 1961 Pope John XXIII established the Pontifical Institute of Liturgy at Sant'Anselmo, Rome, for the scientific study of liturgy. Under the leadership of an international faculty, the school continues to grant numerous doctoral and licentiate degrees to students from around the world.

In Spain, the Catalonian Benedictine monastery of montserrat became a center of liturgical renewal, through the founding of a pastoral liturgical center and publishing, all in the Catalonian language; even there, the influence can be traced back to Maria Laach. During the repressive era of Franco, monks at Montserrat were divided up and sent away to different monasteries for their own safety. Those who were sent to the Rhineland were steeped both in the beauty of the monastic liturgy celebrated at Maria Laach, but also in the rich liturgical theology being done by German monks like Casel and Herwegen. Upon returning to Montserrat, these monks took the best of what they learned and experienced in the Rhineland and applied it to the cultural context of Catalonia. The result was an inculturated form of worship both grounded in the tradition and at the same time, uniquely Catalonian. Even today, visitors to Montserrat are struck by the participative liturgy celebrated daily in Catalan, while in Barcelona, the Center for Pastoral Liturgy continues to blend the best of Catalonian cultural and liturgical traditions in service of the Church.

In Ireland, the Benedictines at Glenstal Abbey (near Limerick) played a leading role in the pastoral liturgical revival after World War II, while at St. Patrick's College, maynooth, the pastoral journal, The Furrow, took up many of the liturgical themes being promoted by Glenstal and did its part in promoting a participative liturgy. Finally, thanks to the leadership of the Rev. Sean Swayne, the founding of the Irish Institute of Pastoral Liturgy at Carlow provided a year-long sabbatical program with diploma for clergy, religious, and laity, interested in a deeper understanding of the liturgy and its pastoral implications.

Switzerland pioneered modern liturgical architecture in the late 1920s by using a one-room type plan in designing liturgical space, creating a living church architecture that rivaled some of the best secular architecture of the day. Early examples include the Church of St. Anthony, Basel (1927) designed by Karl Moser, and Fritz Metzger's St. Charles Church, Luzerne. In the Netherlands, the first Liturgical Congress took place at Breda in 1911. In this century, France, like Switzerland and Germany, led the way in a new type of liturgical architecture. 1923 marks the beginning of the movement in modern liturgical architecture with the church building of Notre-Dame du Raincy, designed by secular architect Auguste Perret; significantly, it was the first church building to use reinforced concrete construction.

For its part, the French Liturgical Movement in this century notes several key events: the founding of the Centre de Pastorale liturgique in Paris (1943), and the launching of an important liturgical periodical, Le Maison-Dieu (1945). While Dom Gaspar Lefebvre contributed in popularizing the liturgy for French parishes, Bernard Botte, A.G. Martimort, Pierre-Marie Gy, Louis Bouyer, and Joseph Gelineau all made significant contributions to the movement well beyond the confines of that country. France was also a leader in the restoration of the catechumenate and the full implementation of the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA) in places like Paris and Strasbourg, only to be superseded by the Church in the United States and England with active catechumenal programs on the parish level.

The Americas. As German Benedictines initiated the South American Liturgical Movement with their pioneering in Brazil, publishing leaflet missals and pastoral commentaries, it was German Benedictines from st. john's abbey in Collegeville, Minnesota, who pioneered the renewal in the north. The movement in the United States demonstrates two fundamental elements: 1) a concern for social justice, thus, a strong link with social movements of the day; and 2) the involvement of large numbers of lay people, both women and men.

As a young monk, Virgil michel (+1938) was sent to Rome for studies at the Benedictine university of S. Anselmo. During those several years, he had the opportunity to travel throughout Europe, visiting the great Benedictine monasteries and liturgical centers like Maria Laach and Montserrat, and observing their life and worship. Moreover, during studies at S. Anselmo, he came into contact with Belgian pioneer Lambert Beauduin, who was his professor. Beauduin's passion for justice coupled with his love of the liturgy left a tremendous mark on Michel, and returning to Collegeville in the Autumn of 1925, he founded the Liturgical Movement with the help of William Busch (St. Paul, Minn.), Gerard Ellard, S.J. (St. Louis, Mo.), and German-born Martin Hellriegel (St. Louis, Mo.). Other Germans soon arrived on the scene: Reynold Hillenbrand of German ancestry (Chicago), and Hans Anscar Reinhold, who fled Germany because of the Nazis. The movement was headquartered at St. John's Abbey, Collegeville, with the founding of the liturgical periodical Orate Fratres (later Worship ) and the Liturgical Press (both in 1926). Following Michel's death, the editorship of Orate Fratres was taken over by confrere Godfrey Diekmann, O.S.B., later a peritus for liturgy at the Second Vatican Council (196265).

Unlike its European counterpart, however, the United States' movement soon moved from monasteries into the hands of lay activists who were to play a key role in the movement. Even before Michel arrived on the scene, Justine ward (+1975) and Georgia Stevens, R.S.C.J., were busy at work at the pius x school of liturgical music, which they founded in 1916 on the grounds of the College of the Sacred Heart in Manhattanville, N.Y. A frequent visitor to Solesmes, Ward was largely responsible for popularizing Solesmes chant in the United States using her "Ward Method." With Ward and Stevens at the helm, the school was a leading force both in the restoration of chant and in liturgical renewal for many years until it closed in 1969. Another example of lay involvement was the founding of the liturgical arts society in 1928 by Maurice lavanoux and several others, drawing the participation of many artists and architects, among them the British artist Eric Gill. Except for their chaplain, Jesuit John La Farge, the group was largely a lay association, attracting women and men dedicated to art and architecture that would assist the participation of the liturgical assembly and give artistic expression to what their participation professed, as seen in their journal, Liturgical Arts. The Liturgical Arts Society ended in 1972.

The strong presence of the liturgical conference (founded in 1940), famous for its annual liturgical weeks which drew up to 12,000 people each year for the three-day meeting, is another example of lay participation in the movement. Women pioneers like Sara Benedica O'Neill, Elizabeth Johnson, and Mary Perkins Ryan, and artist Adé Bethune were all involved, along with Joseph Morrisey, Gerard Sloyan, William Leonard, S.J., Frederick McManus, Thomas Carroll, Robert Hovda, John Mannion, Virginia Sloyan, Gabe Huck, and Rachel Reeder. The published Proceedings of the annual Liturgical Weeks bear testimony to the fundamental role that the Conference played in the American movement. The Conference (now ecumenical) continues today with its journals Liturgy and Homily Service and is headquartered in Washington, D.C. The St. Jerome Society (later Vernacular Society) was founded in 1946 by H. A. Reinhold during the Liturgical Week in Denver, Colo., to promote vernacular in the liturgy. Reinhold soon persuaded retired Colonel John K. Ross-Duggan, then editor of Quick Frozen Foods magazine in Chicago, to assume responsibility for the group. That he did until his death in 1967, leaving his full-time job to devote all his energies to the vernacular cause, launching their periodical Amen in 1950; making frequent visits to Rome to meet with Vatican cardinals and bishops, while maintaining a lively correspondence with many others throughout Asia, Africa, and South America. Despite numerous presidents and other officers of the Vernacular Society over the years, Ross-Duggan remained in control. The Vernacular Society merged with the Liturgical Conference in 1965. At its peak, the organization had several thousand members (including 84 bishops); leaders included Dr. Joseph Evans, John Agathen, Irwin St. John Tucker, Dr. Jack Willke, Rev. Joseph Nolan, and Elaine and Reinhold Kissner. Other examples of lay participation included social activists from the catholic worker; catholic action; friendship house; the grail; christian family movement, most notably, Dorothy day (co-founder of the Catholic Worker) and the Baroness Catherine De Hueck doherty (founder of Friendship House). Around the country, a number of women opened book stores as a way of promoting the liturgy and educating American Catholics; most famous was the St. Benet's Bookshop in downtown Chicago, under the leadership of Sara Benedicta O'Neill and Nina Polcyn. Places like St. Benet's became centers of activityeither for the praying of compline together on Saturday evenings, or for the occasional lecture when Dorothy Day or Godfrey Diekmann or other well-known figures were passing through. The Vernacular Society held its first organizational meeting in the back of St. Benet's.

The issue of immigration is crucial in evaluating the Movement's growth and success. The Liturgical Movement grew in the German Midwest (St. Louis; Chicago; Collegeville, Minn.) and was less successful on the Irish east and west coasts of the United States. Steeped in congregational participation in Germany, those immigrants often brought with them a rich understanding both of liturgical participation and of social outreach. Not surprisingly, it was Germans who founded the first Churchbased social outreach program in 1855, the German Catholic Central Verein. Irish immigrants, on the other hand, were not accustomed to such participation. They had come from an experience of oppression where they were often forced to celebrate the Mass quietly and expeditiously (often behind barns) so as not to be discovered. That tradition was then passed down and gradually found its way into Irish-American parishes in the United States. Thus, when Irish immigrants made their way to these shores, they were quite at home with the "low masses" that had very little congregational singing, if any.

The movement came of age with the founding of academic programs in liturgy. In Indiana, Michael Mathis,C.S.C., founded the Summer School of Liturgy at the University of notre dame in 1947. In 1965 it was expanded into the graduate program in liturgical studies, an ecumenical program that trained many liturgical scholars from the Catholic Church and other churches. The program continued to thrive, along with a strong graduate program in liturgical studies at the catholic university of america in Washington, D.C.

Over the years, the Liturgical Movement had its critics. It was not until papal documents like mystici corporis or mediator dei that the movement and its agenda gained respectability. The bilingual Collectio Rituum of 1954 was another notable advance, allowing for greater use of the vernacular and containing significant reforms of some of the rites. The 1955 restoration of the Holy Week rites to their proper place pushed liturgical advocates onward toward a participative Conciliar liturgy, which was only several years away. In 1956 liturgical experts gathered at Assisi from all around the world, including Godfrey diekmann, O.S.B., Monsignor Frederick McManus, William Leonard, S.J., and Colonel John K. Ross-Duggan. Expecting a major announcement on the vernacular, delegates were greatly disappointed during their audience in the Vatican with Pope Pius XII, who assured them that Latin would remain the language of the Church's worship. The 1958 "Instruction for American Pastors on Sacred Music and Liturgy" provided renewed hope for a vernacular liturgy with the "dialogue Mass" (Missa recitata ), but that hope was only to be dashed in 1961 with the Papal document Veterum Sapientia, which again upheld Latin as the official language of the Church and cautioned against the vernacular. Indeed, it was following that document that Bishop Mark Carroll of Wichita, Kans., was told by the anti-vernacular apostolic delegate, Archbishop Vagnozzi, that his association with the Vernacular Society was to cease; other members of the clergy also resigned from the group.

The Second Vatican Council. On Dec. 4, 1963, the bishops of the Second Vatican Council, together with Pope Paul VI, solemnly promulgated their first document of Vatican IIthe Liturgy Constitution, Sacrosanctum Concilium. The formal vote taken that day was 2,147 bishops in favor, four opposed. The Vatican then issued a pastoral instruction on Sept. 26, 1964, to assist with implementing the new document on the local level and gave the first Sunday of Advent 1964 as the effective date for implementation. This was the crowning achievement of the Liturgical Movement and the fulfillment of a dream for liturgical pioneers who were still alive at the time to see the dream come true. While the Constitution endorsed the efforts of the pioneers, it only marked the beginning of work to be undertaken by the whole Church in subsequent years. National liturgical commissions and institutes of pastoral liturgy would be formed; liturgical experts would need to be trained.

The consilium for the Implementation of the Constitution on the Liturgya commission of expertswas established in 1964 to carry out the revisions of the Roman liturgical books. Except for the section of the Roman Ritual on blessings, all of the Church's liturgical books were published before 1978; a number were subsequently revised. Each language group was charged with the task of translating the Latin edition into the vernacular, and the creation of original texts (with the help of linguists, poets, anthropologists, etc.) that reflected the culture and experience of the particular local church. Those liturgical texts had to be approved by each episcopal conference and confirmed by the Congregation for divine worship and the discipline of the sacraments. Actual sacramental formulae were approved by the pope for each language group. In 1963 the English-speaking world formed the international commission on english in the liturgy (icel), which was incorporated in Canada (1967) with Washington, D.C., as the site of its secretariat. In the U.S., the Bishops' Commission on the Liturgical Apostolate was formed in 1958 under the leadership of Archbishop Paul Hallinan (Atlanta) and Msgr. Frederick R. McManus (Boston). The Bishops' Committee on the Liturgy (BCL) had a full-time secretariat at the offices of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops in Washington, D.C. As dioceses established liturgical commissions in keeping with the directive of Sacrosanctum Concilium (no. 44), the federation of diocesan liturgical commissions (FDLC) was founded in 1969 to create a network of diocesan liturgy directors, promoting leadership in pastoral liturgy. Two members were elected from each of the twelve regions of the country to serve on its board of directors. Together with the BCL and a local diocese, the FDLC sponsored a national meeting annually. It promoted the appointment of full-time trained liturgical personnel in most large dioceses around the country.

In the area of the arts, a Composers' Forum for Catholic Worship was established in 1970 to promote the composition of new music, but was discontinued in 1977. In 1976, the national association of pastoral musicians (NPM) was founded by Rev. Virgil Funk to include both pastors and musicians. NPM annual conferences drew thousands of people from around the country and its journal, Pastoral Music was widely acclaimed. Another organization on the scene was the Society for Catholic Liturgy, founded in 1995 by Msgr. M. Francis Mannion of Salt Lake City, Utah. This group of 160 Catholic liturgical specialists held annual meetings at the end of September.

Certain places were also designated as centers for liturgical research, among them the Notre Dame Center for Pastoral Liturgy (1970) and the Georgetown Center for Liturgy, Spirituality, and the Arts (Washington, D.C.). The Chicago Office of Divine Worship instituted the widely acclaimed Liturgy Training Publications (now independent) which provided a tremendous service to the Church in publishing excellent liturgical material (both in English and Spanish) that was accessible both to clergy and parishioners alike.

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[k. f. pecklers]

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