Skip to main content

Kittel, Rudolf


German Protestant OT scholar, best known by his critical edition of the Hebrew Bible; b. Eningen, Württemberg, March 28, 1853; d. Leipzig, Oct. 20, 1929. Kittel became professor of Old Testament studies in Breslau (1888) and in Leipzig (1898). As a theologian who believed in divine revelation, in his three-volume Geschichte des Volkes Israel (v.1, 6th ed. Gotha 1923; v.2, 7th ed. ibid. 1925; v.3, Stuttgart 192729) he rejected the natural-evolutionism of J. wellhausen and set forth the inner spiritual history of Israel while also showing its relationship to the history of other religions of the ancient Near East. He was the first to make extensive use of archeological discoveries in connection with the history of Israel, and he also employed these to good effect in his controversy with Friedrich Delitzsch over panbabylonianism. Independent historical and theological judgment is likewise characteristic of his Religion des Volkes Israel (Leipzig 1921, 2d ed. 1929) and his commentaries on several books of the Old Testament: Psalms, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, and Isaiah. His indispensable Biblia Hebraica was prepared with the assistance of several fellow specialists (Leipzig 190506; 3d ed., P. Kahle, ed., ibid. 192937).

Bibliography: j. hempel, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft 84 (1930) 7893. e. kutsch, Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 7 v. (3rd ed. Tübingen 195765) 3:162627. o. kaiser, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 10 v. (2d, new ed. Freiburg 195765) 6:310311.

[v. hamp]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Kittel, Rudolf." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . 17 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Kittel, Rudolf." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . (February 17, 2019).

"Kittel, Rudolf." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved February 17, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.