KARMINSKI, HANNAH (1897–1942), German social worker. Born in Berlin, she taught at a Jewish kindergarten. After moving to Frankfurt, she took charge of a club for young girls. Here she met famous Jewish personalities who had a decisive influence on her future development. She made the acquaintance of Franz *Rosenzweig and Bertha *Pappenheim who persuaded her to work for the Juedische Frauenbund ("Jewish Women's Organization"). Hannah Karminski was appointed secretary general of this organization, which developed rapidly under her leadership. From 1924 she edited the Frauenbund's monthly journal, Die Blaetter des juedischen Frauenbundes. When Hitler's Gestapo ordered the organization to terminate its activities, Hannah Karminski became a leading figure in the work of the *Reichsvertretung (later Reichsvereinigung) der Juden in Deutschland, a body set up by the Nazis to represent the Jewish community and to manage its affairs. Hannah Karminski continued working until 1942 under incredibly difficult conditions. She was arrested while seriously ill and died on the way to a concentration camp in the East.
E.G. Loewenthal, Bewaehrung im Untergang (1965), 89–93. add. bibliography: G. Maierhof, "Bleiben oder Gehen – Die Diskussion um Auswanderung im jüdischen Frauenbund in den Jahren 1933 bis 1938," in: Exil – Emigration, 32 (1997), 8–14.
"Karminski, Hannah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/karminski-hannah
"Karminski, Hannah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved December 12, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/karminski-hannah
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.