JUDE, DER , name of four periodicals in the German language. The first appeared in nine issues between 1768 and 1772 in Leipzig and was published by an apostate, Gottfried Selig, with the intention of making the Christian world familiar with Jewish ritual, religion, and habits.
The second, edited by Gabriel *Riesser, was published for two years (1832–33) with one further issue. It consisted mainly of Riesser's own articles, in which he criticized the political negotiations within various German states concerning the emancipation of the Jews. Riesser chose the name "Der Jude," which had become almost an insult, in order to rehabilitate it.
The third, a monthly (1916–24), was founded and edited by M. *Buber, who adopted the name of Riesser's periodical but pointed out that "the Jew" was meant as representative of the Jewish people, and that he demanded liberty and freedom of work for this oppressed people. The Jewish problem had again been brought to the fore during the latter years of World War i, which had also given rise to nationalist ideas. Nearly all leading personalities among German-speaking Jewry contributed to the periodical during the eight years of its publication. Buber himself published in it his most important essays in that period. After monthly publication ceased, five special issues appeared on antisemitism, education, Jewry and German nationality, Jewry and Christianity (1925–27), and on M. Buber's 50th birthday (1928).
The fourth publication of this name, a Zionist periodical, appeared in Vienna between 1934 and 1938.
J. Feiner, Gabriel Riessers Leben und Wirken (1911), 33f.; M.T. Edelheim-Muehsam, in: ylbi, 1 (1956), 171; M. Rinott, ibid., 7 (1962), 32–34; H. Kohn, Martin Buber (1961), 162ff.; A. Altmann, in: ylbi, 1 (1956), 202f. add. bibliography: E. Lappin, Der Jude 1916–1928 (2000).