John XII, Pope
JOHN XII, POPE
Pontificate: Dec. 16, 955 to May 14, 964; b. Rome, c. 936. Before his death in 954, Alberic II of Spoleto, the undisputed master of Rome, made the nobles swear to elect his only son, Octavian, to the papacy at the death of Agapetus II. As pope, Octavian changed his name to John. Even if this immature pontiff, scarcely 18, were not guilty of all the vices attributed to him by liutprand (Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Scriptores 3:340–346), there is sufficient unbiased evidence to prove that he was unworthy of his office. In 959, attempting to recover former papal lands from King Berengarius II, John appealed for help to otto i. The German king willingly obliged, and late in 961 his army appeared in Italy. On Feb. 2, 962, John crowned Otto emperor and Otto's wife, (St.) Adelaide, empress, in St. Peter's Basilica, beginning the long association of the imperial title with the German kingdom (see holy roman empire). Otto issued the Privilegium Ottonianum, promising to make the pope the temporal ruler of almost three-fourths of Italy. On the other hand, the pope had to recognize the emperor's suzerainty over the states of the church and agree that future popes were not to be consecrated until they had taken an oath of fealty to the emperor. The pope resented these terms, and when Otto left the city, began to plot against him. The emperor, therefore, returned on November 3, but John escaped to Tivoli with the papal treasury. On November 6, Otto summoned a synod in St. Peter's, and there the pope was accused of gross misconduct; he was ordered to appear in person and clear himself of these charges. When John refused, he was deposed on December 4 and replaced by a Roman lay official, leo viii. Many in Rome opposed this highhanded action and John easily regained control of the city (early 964) after Otto's departure. He punished many of his enemies and declared the acts of Leo VIII null and void. John died suddenly under circumstances that, according to Liutprand, were just as scandalous as his life.
See Also: crescentii.
Bibliography: p. jaffÉ, Regesta pontificum romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum 1198, ed. s. lÖwenfeld (Graz 1956) 1:463–467. Liber pontificalis, ed. l. duchesne (Paris 1886–92) 2:246–249. h. k. mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages from 590 to 1304 (London 1902–32) 4:241–272. e. amann, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. a. vacant et al., (Paris 1903–50) 8.1:619–626. a. fliche and v. martin, Histoire de l'église depuis les origines jusqu'à nos jours (Paris 1935—) 7:44–55. p. brezzi, Roma e l'Impero medioevale, 774–1252 (Bologna 1947). j. haller, Das Papsttum (Stuttgart 1950–53) 2:204–215, 549–555. w. ullmann, "The Origins of the Ottonianum, " Cambridge Historical Journal 11 (Cambridge, Eng. 1953) 114–128; The Growth of Papal Government in the Middle Ages (London 1955). p. e. schramm, Kaiser, Rom und Renovatio (Darmstadt 1957). h. beumann, "Die Gründung des Bistums Oldenburg und die Missionspolitik Ottos des Grossen, " Ausgewählte Aufsätze aus des Jahren 1966–1986. Festgabe zu seinem 75. Geburtstag (1987) 177–92. g. gresser, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon 6 (1993), s.v. "Otger (Otgar, Otkerius), Bischof von Speyer." k. hampe, "Die Berufung Ottos des Grossen nach Rom durch Papst Johann XII, " in Historische Aufsätze Karl Zeumer zum sechzigsten Geburtstag als Festgabe dargebracht von Freunden und Schüer (Frankfurt 1987) 153–63. e. d. hehl, "Die angeblichen Kanones der röischen Synode vom Febuar 962, " Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters (Köln-Wien 1986) 620–8. e. d. hehl, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche 5 (Freiburg 1996), s.v. "Johannes XII." h. platell, "Théophylacte, " Catholicisme hier aujorud'hui demain (Paris 1996) 119–20. t. struve, Lexikon des Mittelalters, 7 (Mün-chen-Zurich 1994–1995), s.v. "Privilegium Ottonianum." j. n. d. kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes (New York 1986) 126–127.
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