The movement of young workers founded by Joseph cardijn (1882–1967) as a curate in Belgium, named the Jeunesse Ouvrière Chrétienne (JOC) and extended first in Belgium and France and then throughout the world in a variety of specialized movements, e.g., the Jeunesse Agricole Chrétienne (JAC) and the Jeunesse Étudiante Chrétienne (JEC). Its characteristic organization of small groups for the apostolate of "like to like" and its method of formation (see-judge-act) were widely adopted and praised by Pius XI and succeeding popes. Paul VI elevated the founder to the college of cardinals in 1965. The concept of a Catholic youth movement that would be autonomous, socially oriented, and aimed at the development of all aspects of young factory workers was a radical innovation in Catholic circles of the time. The whole weight of tradition had been paternalistic and pietistic. By 1918, however, Belgian Catholics were becoming aware of the disastrous effects of the neglect of the social problems resulting from industrialization. Socialism had filled the vacuum, and the working class had largely abandoned traditional religion. To satisfy working-class aspirations it was necessary to direct an appeal specifically to this social class and to create working-class organizations under working-class leadership with working-class goals. This necessity was seen clearly by Cardijn, a true pioneer.
[j. n. moody]
"Jocism." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 22, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jocism
"Jocism." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved January 22, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jocism
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.