Huguccio (Hugh of Pisa)
HUGUCCIO (HUGH OF PISA)
Classical canonist and the most famous of all decretists; b. Pisa, Italy, during the first half of the 12th century; d. Ferrara, Italy, April 30, 1210. His name appears under various forms: Hugo, Ugo, hugucio, huguccio, hugutio, uguicio, hugwiccio, ugwicio, oguicio, hugotio, and so on. His identifying initials in the glosses are: hug., ug., hu., hugu., h., N., yg., wig., gw., Gwi., and wiz. His Pisan origin is confirmed not only by a constant tradition but also by references found in his works. In fact, frequent allusions are made to the conditions existing in Pisa, while in the foreward of the Liber derivationum he calls himself patria Pisanum and, under the term Pis/pisa, clearly professes his origin from this city.
Indications obtained from his works show that Huguccio dedicated himself to profound studies of liberal arts. At the same time he devoted himself to the study of theology and especially of Canon Law in Bologna, where he also taught, counting among his disciples Lotharius of Segni, who later became Innocent III. On May 1, 1190, Clement III appointed him bishop of Ferrara. During this time the Roman pontiffs entrusted him with numerous assignments, references to which are to be found in the decretals of the pontiffs [Corpus iuris canonici, ed. A. Friedberg (Leipzig 1879–81) X 1.29.34; 3.41.8; 4.19.7;5.39.43; 3.43.3].
His works are divided into three classes: grammatical, theological, and juridical. Among the grammatical works are the Tractatus de dubio accentu wherein the accent of composed terms is determined together with prosodic explanations. This work was composed before the Liber derivationum in which it is cited. The Rosarium, which deals with declination of verbs, was likewise written before the Liber derivationum, wherein it is quoted. In the Summa artis grammaticae the author reveals his juridical knowledge, and therefore the work appears to have been composed at a later date.
The Liber derivationum, however, assured Huguccio of philological and lexicographic fame. In alphabetical order it gives etymological explanations of words. This extensive work followed the pattern of similar publications by Osbern of Gloucester and Papia and for nearly two centuries was known throughout Europe, until it was superseded by the Catholicon of John de Balbis Januensis. Even today it holds its importance, and an edition is projected by the Istituto di Studi Romani in Rome. The date of composition of this work has always been attributed to the years of his episcopacy in Ferrara and more precisely to the period 1197 to 1201, when he was present in Nonantula. The work reveals a lack of perfection of that juridical thinking that he shows later, in his Summa decretorum.
Consequently, it must have preceded this last publication. In fact, Hugguccio himself quotes the Liber derivationum in his Hagiographia, which appears together with the Summa decreti (manuscript Paris, Biblical naturalist, 14877, folio 127r). This later work, therefore, seems to be a product of his activities as a young student diligently and profoundly dedicated to the study of arts, as proved by his writings.
Three treatises give testimony of his theological studies. The above–mentioned Hagiographia constitutes a transition from grammatical works to theological ones. It is an etymological glossary of the names of the days of the week, of the months, and of the saints assigned to each day; it was composed before the Summa decreti. Huguccio's principal theological writings are the Expositio symboli apostolorum, containing numerous etymological explanations that confirm his broad grammatical knowledge, and the Expositio dominicae orationis, wherein are illustrated seven invocations, the seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit, seven Beatitudes, and compiled at an earlier date than that of the Summa decreti.
Huguccio's principal work, which reveal his exceptional qualities and profound culture, is the Summa super decreta, or Summa super corpore decretorum, which, according to the testimony of John of God, he wrote ad instantiam discipulorum. Huguccio's Summa excels as the most complete of all commentaries written on the Decree of Gratian and justly honors the author as the greatest of all decretists.
Origin. The Summa was for the most part published between the years 1188 and 1190. At a later date appeared Causa I, the Tractatus de poenitentia (33.3) and Pars III (De consecratione ), Causa 23.1–4 ad 34. The continuation of this incomplete part was written by the Portuguese John of God about 1243. In certain manuscript codes these Causae (23–26) were replaced by other works of that time. The manuscript codes of the Summa, more or less complete, amount to more than 40. This Summa is a treatise ad modum apparatuum; that is, it explains in synthesis not only the matter and doctrine but also the legal text that is examined and interpreted exagetically and analytically.
Sources. The works and glosses that Huguccio consulted quoted implicitly or explicitly, analyzed, discussed, and followed in his writings, were almost all of his own time. With reference to Roman law, the great doctors Irnerius, Bulgarus, Martinus Gosia, Placentinus, Joannes Bassianus, and other legal experts were mentioned by name. Among the theologians, he quoted all those of greater fame, especially those of the school of Paris, such as Peter Lombard, P. Cantor, P. Comestor or Manducator, and Gilbertus Porretanus. In addition, he did not neglect mentioning the works of all preceding and contemporary canonists, not only of the school of Bologna, but almost in the same manner, of the Gallo–Rhine and Anglo–Norman schools as well. Among the scholars of Bologna, he quoted very frequently Gandulphus, Albert, Cardinalis, Bazianus, John of Faenza, Rufinus, Stephanus Tornacensis, Simon de Bisignano, Siccardus of Cremona. With reference to legal texts not contained in the Decree, he often cited the Decretum of burchard, the Canones Concilii Romani (Lat. III from 1179), and the decretals of the Roman pontiffs, especially of Alexander III, up to Gregory VIII. Nevertheless, Huguccio did not make use of the Compilatio prima antiqua.
Importance. The Summa is not a mere compilation of glosses and doctrines, though as was then the custom Huguccio did report, even word for word, many passages from the works of others. It is rather a personal exposition, discussion, and elaboration by which Huguccio manifested his competent opinion, often with vivid expressions, and submitted the opinions of others to a sometimes meticulous analysis. At that time, when the classical juridical doctrine was being expounded by means of the teaching and legislation of the Roman pontiffs, his opinions played a most important role in this effort, though they were not always totally correct and definitive. Almost no subsequent author has disregarded Huguccio's Summa. All have more or less depended on, mentioned, and quoted it. Owing to the fact that Huguccio's Summa touches on numerous other subjects, such as theology, Roman law, liturgy, historical happenings of his time, philology, and grammar, it is of utmost importance for sciences besides Canon Law. Furthermore, it is significant for the explication of the text of the Decree.
An edition of this vast work, now in preparation by a number of collaborators, will undoubtedly favor a more thorough inquiry.
Bibliography: j. f. von schulte, Die Geschichte der Quellen und der Literatur des kanonischen Rechts, 3 v. in 4 pts. (Stuttgart 1875–80) 1:156–170. s. kuttner, Repertorium der Kanonistik (Rome 1937) 155–160. s. kuttner, "Bernardus Compostellanus Antiquus," Traditio, 1 (1943) 283. a. van hove, Commentarium Lovaniense in Codicem iuris canonici 1, V. 1–5 (Mechlin 1928—) 1:419. g. catalano, "Contributo alla biografia di Uguccione da Pisa," Diritto Ecclesiastico 65 (1954) 3–67. g. le bras, "Notes pour l'histoire littéraire du droit canon: Du nouveau sur Huguccio de Pise," Revue de droit cannonique, (Strasbourg 1951—), 5 (1955) 133–146. c. leonardi, "La vita e l'opera di Uguccione da Pisa decretista," Studia Gratiana, 4 (1956–57) 37–120. a. m. stickler, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche 2, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 10 v. (2d, new ed. Freiburg 1957–65) 5:521–522. Dictionnaire de droit canonique, ed. r. naz, 7 v. (Paris 1935–65) 7:1355–62. j. roman, "Summa d'Huguccio sur le Décret de Gratien d'après le Ms. 3891 de la Bibliothèque Nationale, Causa XXVII, q. II," Nouvelle revue historique de droit français et étranger (Paris 1877–1921) 27 (1903) 745–805. f. gillmann, "Die Abfassungszeit der Dekretsumme Huguccios," Archiv für katholisches Kirchenrecht, 94 (1914) 233–251, comment by f. heyer, 513–514; "Paucapalea und Paleae bei Huguccio," ibidem, 88 (1908) 466–479. l. prosdocimi, "La 'Summa decretorum' di Uguccione da Pisa: Studi preliminari per una edizione critica," Studia Gratiana, 3 (1955) 349–374; "I manoscritti della Summa decretorum di Uguccione da Pisa, I: Iter Germanicum," ibidem, 7 (1959) 251–272. a. m. stickler, "Problemi di ricerca e di edizione per Uguccione da Pisa e nella decretistica," Actes du Congrès de droit canonique médiéval, 1958 (Louvain 1959) 111–122. Bulletin of the Institute of Research and Study in Medieval Canon Law in Traditio 11 (1955) 435, 441–444; 12 (1956) 559, 563; 13 (1957) 465, 469; 15 (1959) 450; 17 (1961) 534; 18 (1962) 449; 19 (1963) 511, for catalogs of modern manuscripts and editions in progress. v. rossi, "Per una edizione delle Magnae derivationes di Uguccione da Pisa," in Atti del III congresso nazionale di Studi Romani, 2 (Rome 1935) 42–46. a. marigo, I codici manoscritti delle "Derivationes" di Uguccione Pisano (Rome 1936). s. g. mercati, "Sul luogo e sulla data della composizione delle Derivationes di Uguccione da Pisa," Aevum, 33 (1959) 490–494.
[a. m. stickler]