Herrera, Juan de
HERRERA, JUAN DE
Architect and scientist who completed the escorial ;b. Mobellan (Asturias), Spain, c. 1530; d. Madrid, Jan. 1, 1597. Herrera, the son of small landowners, studied at Valladolid before following Prince Philip (later philip ii) to Italy in 1547. In 1563 he was appointed assistant to the royal architect, Juan Bautista de Toledo, who had already projected the Escorial. Upon Toledo's death in May 1567, Herrera gradually assumed direction of the enterprise, received full charge in 1572, and brought it to completion in 1584. He also directed work at royal seats in Madrid, Aranjuez, Segovia, El Pardo, and Toledo. The Exchange in Seville (1584; now the Archivo General de Indias) and the unfinished cathedral of Valladolid (begun in 1585) are also his designs. His work differs from that of his Italian contemporaries, Vignola and Palladio, by its functional severity, as well as by the estilo desornamentado inherited from Juan Bautista de Toledo and other military architects of the 1560s, and by the richness of its proportional harmonies. He was the author of Discurso sobre la figura cubica (after 1579), and in 1584 he helped to found an academy in Madrid for mathematical studies. He also devised instruments for navigation.
Bibliography: l. cervera vera, La semblanza de Juan de Herrera (Madrid 1963). a. ruiz de arcaute, Juan de Herrera: Arquitecto de Felipe II (Madrid 1936). g. kubler and m. soria, Art and Architecture in Spain and Portugal and Their American Dominions, 1500–1800 (Pelican History of Art, ed. n. pevsner. Z17; Baltimore, 1959). b. bevan, History of Spanish Architecture (London 1938). a. l. mayer, in u. thieme and f. becker, eds., Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, 37 v. (Leipzig 1907–38) 16:540–542.
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