DEUTZ , former town, now a suburb of *Cologne, Germany. Jews are first mentioned in Deutz as victims of the *Black Death persecutions (1348–49). It is unlikely that the expulsion of the Jews from Cologne in 1424 had a major impact on the development of the community in Deutz, which experienced significant growth only from the early 17th century. In 1631, during the Thirty Years War, the Jews of Deutz were permitted to deposit their wealth and pledges at Cologne. The Deutz Memorbuch for the years 1581–1784 records the prevention of anti-Jewish riots instigated by Cologne students in 1665. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries celebrated Jewish physicians of Deutz practiced in Cologne. Noted 17th-century physicians, who were also talmudic scholars and community leaders, included Abraham Salomo (d. 1631), his son Isaac (d. 1657), and Levi Nathan (1616–1670). A synagogue is known to have existed in Deutz from the 16th century, but there is no evidence of a rabbinate before the mid-17th century. The first *Landesrabbiner of the Electorate of Cologne to have officiated in Deutz was Herz Bruehl (d. 1656), who was succeeded in the 18th century by Judah Mehler (d. 1751) and Joseph Juspa Kossmann (d. 1758). In 1695 the Deutz community acquired a cemetery which was also used by the Cologne community from 1807 to 1867. In 1784 the old synagogue (built in the early 18th century) was destroyed by flood; it was rebuilt in 1786 and remained in use until 1914. A new synagogue was erected in 1915. The number of Jews in Deutz possessing rights of residence increased from four in 1616 to 17 in 1634 and 19 in 1764. In 1823, under Prussian rule, there were 238 Jews in Deutz, decreasing to 233 in 1840, and 206 in 1880. In 1928 the Deutz community was amalgamated with that of Cologne. The synagogue in Deutz was destroyed on *Kristallnacht, Nov. 10, 1938.
Germ Jud, 1 (1963), 86–87; 2 (1968), 161; K. Brisch, Geschichte der Juden in Cöln und Umgebung…, 2 vols. (1879–82); A. Kober, Cologne (Eng., 1940), passim; idem, in: Festschrift zum 75 jaehrigen Bestehen des juedisch-theologischen Seminars, 2 (1929), 173–236; idem, Aus der Geschichte der Juden im Rheinland (1931), 22–5; Salfeld, Martyrol, 287. add. bibliography: K.H.S. Schulte, Familienbuch der Deutzer Juden (1992); B. Klein, in: Hirt und Herde (2000), 251–78.
[Chasia Turtel /
Stefan Rohrbacher (2nd ed.)]