DEUTSCH, SIMON (c. 1822–1877), Austrian revolutionary. Born in Nikolsburg, Deutsch lived in Vienna, where he studied for the rabbinate, cataloged Hebrew manuscripts at the Imperial Library, and published Menahem b. Jacob ibn Saruq's Maḥberet. He soon turned to Socialism and after the 1848 revolution was condemned to death, but escaped via Switzerland to France. In Paris, Deutsch entered business and became prosperous, opening branches in Belgium, Romania, and Turkey, but remained a radical and associated with Michelet and Proudhon. During the 1870 Franco-Prussian War, Deutsch served in the French army. In 1871 he took part in the Paris Commune as one of the leaders of the First Communist International. After the collapse of the Commune he was thrown into prison, but was saved from death by the Austrian ambassador. In 1874 he replaced Karl Marx at the directory committee of the International. From Paris, Deutsch moved to Turkey, where he was associated in the foundation of the Young Turk movement. He died in Constantinople.
Nordmann, in: azdj, 47 (1883), 293–6. add. bibliography: Enciclopedia Judaica Castellana, 3 (1949), 473.