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Carvajal

CARVAJAL

Uncle and nephew, both cardinals. Juan de Carvajal, cardinal bishop and papal legate; b. Trujillo, Estremadura, Spain, c. 1400; d. Rome, Dec. 6, 1469. An auditor of the Rota and governor of Rome in 1440, he was sent to persuade Emperor Frederick III and the German princes to abandon the neutrality they had assumed in the struggle between Eugene IV and the Council of Basel, and he appeared before the Diet of Mainz in 1441 and the Diet of Frankfort in 1442. In the later Diet of Frankfort in 1446 he was associated with Tommaso Parentucelli (later Pope Nicholas V); their work culminated when the emperor and the princes went into opposition to the Council of Basel. Later in 1446 Carvajal and Parentucelli were both made cardinals. In the same year Carvajal was named bishop of Plasencia in Spain. In 1448 he negotiated the Concordat of Vienna regulating German relations with the papacy. He served also as legate to Bohemia, where the Hussite problem continued, and on missions to Hungary (145561) and Venice (146667) he sought to stiffen resistance against the Turks. In Hungary he was accompanied by john capistran, and while he was there, John Hunyadi defeated the Turks at Belgrade. Carvajal became bishop of Porto in 1461 and chamberlain of the College of Cardinals in 1469.

Bernardino Lopez de Carvajal, cardinal bishop, member of the uncanonical council of Pisa-Milan, nephew of Juan; b. Plasencia, Estremadura, 1456; d. Rome, Dec. 16, 1523. He became bishop of Astorga in 1488, of Badajoz in 1489, of Cartagena in 1493, and of Sigüenza from 1495 to 1519. He was made a cardinal in 1493 and sent as legate to Germany in 1496. As one of the Spanish cardinals favored by Alexander VI, he did not get on well with Julius II. In 1504 he was entrusted with the custody of Cesare Borgia, whom he allowed to escape. Following the negotiation of peace between Venice and the papacy, the withdrawal of the pope from the League of Cambrai, and the dispatch of a papal army against Ferrara (whose duke was supported by the French), Carvajal and other dissident cardinals assembled at Pisa and proclaimed a council, summoning Julius II to appear. They were excommunicated, and Julius convoked the Fifth Lateran Council. When Leo X became pope, Carvajal recognized the Fifth Lateran Council and, having pledged obedience, was absolved and restored to his honors. In 1521 he became bishop of Ostia.

Bibliography: t. minguella y arnedo, Historia de la diócesis de Sigüenza y de sus obispos, 3 v. (Madrid 191013). p. paschini, Roma nel Rinascimento (Bologna 1940). l. gÓmez canedo, Un español al servicio de la S. Sede: don J. da C. (Madrid 1947). p. alonso and m. alamo, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. a. baudrillart et al. (Paris 1912) 11:123942. j. wodka, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner (Freiburg 195765) 2:959960.

[d. r. campbell]

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