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Carus, Paul 1852-1919

CARUS, Paul 1852-1919

PERSONAL: Born July 18, 1852, in Ilsenburg, Germany; immigrated to the United States, 1884; died February 11, 1919, in La Salle, IL; son of Gustav (a Protestant minister and church official) and Laura (Krüger) Carus; married Mary Hegler, March 29, 1888. Education: University of Tübingen, Ph.D., 1876; also attended University of Greifswald and University of Strasbourg.

CAREER: Teacher at a military academy in Dresden, Germany, c. 1876; Open Court, Chicago, IL, editor, beginning 1887; Monist, editor, beginning 1890; Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago, IL, director. Maha Bodhi Society, leader of U.S. group.


Monism and Meliorism: A Philosophical Essay onCausality and Ethics, F. W. Christern (New York, NY), 1885.

Fundamental Problems: The Method of Philosophy as a Systematic Arrangement of Knowledge, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1889, 2nd edition, 1894.

The Soul of Man, 1891.

Monism, Its Scope: A Review of the Work of the Monist, 1891-92.

Homilies of Science, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1892.

Primer of Philosophy, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1893.

The Religion of Science, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL),1893, 2nd edition, 1896.

The Gospel of Buddha, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1894, abridged edition published as The Teachings of Buddha, edited by Diana St. Ruth, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1998.

The Nature of the State, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1894.

The Gospel of Buddha according to Old Records, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1894, published as The Gospel of Buddha: Compiled from Ancient Records, 1917.

De rerum natura (poetry in German), translated into English by Charles Alva Lane, [Chicago, IL], 1895.

The Dharma; or, The Religion of Enlightenment (pamphlet), Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1896, 5th enlarged edition, 1907.
(Editor and translator) Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Goethe and Schiller's Xenions, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1896, 2nd edition, 1915.

Nirvâna: A Story of Buddhist Psychology, illustrated by T. Hasegawa, T. Hasegawa (Tokyo, Japan), 1896, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1902, published with illustrations by Kwasong Suzuki, Asian Educational Services (New Delhi, India), 1997.

Buddhism and Its Christian Critics, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1897.

(Translator and author of introduction, transliteration, and notes) Lao-tzu, Lao-Tze's Tao-the-King:Chinese-English, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1898, published as The Canon of Reason and Virtue, 1903, extract published as The Canon of Reason and Virtue: Being Lao-tze's Tao the King, 1913, revised edition published as The Teachings of Lao-Tzu: The Tao te Ching, Rider (London, England), 1999.

Kant and Spencer: A Study of the Fallacies of Agnosticism, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1899.

The History of the Devil and the Idea of Evil: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1900, reprinted, Gramercy Books (New York, NY), 1996.

The Chief 's Daughter: A Legend of Niagara, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1901.

The Crown of Thorns, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1901.

(Editor and translator) Immanuel Kant, Kant's Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1902, published as Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Come Forward as Science, revised by James W. Ellington, Hackett Publishing (Indianapolis, IN), 1977, published in The Philosophy of Material Nature, two volumes, 1985.

The Surd of Metaphysics: An Inquiry into the QuestionAre There Things-in-Themselves? Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1903.

Friedrich Schiller, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1905.

(Translator, with Daisetz Taitaro Suzuki, and editor) T'ai-shang kan-ying p'ien: Treatise of the Exalted One on Response and Retribution, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1906.

Amitabha: A Story of Buddhist Theology, K. Paul, Trench, Trübner (London, England), 1906.

Our Children: Hints from Practical Experience forParents and Teachers, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1906.

Chinese Thought: An Exposition of the Main Characteristic Features of the Chinese World-Conception, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1907, abridged edition published as Chinese Astrology, 1974.

Chinese Life and Customs, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1907.

The Story of Samson and Its Place in the ReligiousDevelopment of Mankind, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1907.

The Philosopher's Martyrdom: A Satire, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1908.

The Bride of Christ: A Study in Christian Legend Lore, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1908.

The Foundations of Mathematics: A Contribution to the Philosophy of Geometry, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1908.

God: An Enquiry into the Nature of Man's HighestIdeal and a Solution of the Problem from the Standpoint of Science, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1908.

The Pleroma: An Essay on the Origin of Christianity, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1909.

Philosophy as a Science: A Synopsis of the Writings ofDr. Paul Carus, Containing an Introduction Written by Himself, Summaries of His Books, and a List of Articles to Date, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1909.

(Translator) Johann Scheffler, Angelus Silesius: ASelection from the Rhymes of a German Mystic, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1909.

Truth on Trial: An Exposition of the Nature of Truth,Preceded by a Critique of Pragmatism and an Appreciation of Its Leader, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1911.

Personality, with Special Reference to Superpersonalities and the Interpersonal Character of Ideas, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1911.

The Philosophy of Form, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1911, reprinted, AMS Press (New York, NY), 1980.

The Buddha: A Drama in Three Acts and Four Interludes, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1911. The Mechanistic Principle and the Non-Mechanical:An Inquiry into Fundamentals, with Extracts from Representatives of Either Side, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1913.

The Principle of Relativity in the Light of the Philosophy of Science, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1913.

Nietzsche and Other Exponents of Individualism, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1914.

Goethe, with Special Consideration of His Philosophy, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1915.

K'ung Fu Tze: A Dramatic Poem, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1915.

The Dawn of a New Religious Era, revised edition, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1916.

The Venus of Milo: An Archeological Study of the Goddess of Womanhood, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1916.

(Editor and translator) Virgil's Prophecy on theSaviour's Birth: The Fourth Eclogue, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1918.

The Point of View: An Anthology of Religion andPhilosophy Selected from the Works of Paul Carus, edited by Catherine E. Cook, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1927.

Karma/Nirvana, illustrated by Kwasong Suzuki, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1973.

Author of shorter works, including The Idea of God, Open Court Publishing (Chicago, IL), 1888; Science: A Religious Revelation, Open Court Publishing, 1893; The Philosophy of the Tool, Open Court Publishing, 1893; Karma: A Story of Buddhist Ethics, Open Court Publishing, 1894, illustrations by Kwason Suzuki, 1903, illustrations by T. Hasegawa, 1984; Godward: A Record of Religious Progress, Open Court Publishing, 1898; (compiler) Portfolio of Buddhist Art, Historical and Modern, Open Court Publishing, 1906; The Nestorian Monument: An Ancient Record of Christianity in China, Open Court Publishing, 1909; The Oracle of Yahveh, Urim, and Thummin, the Ephod, the Breastplate of Judgment, Open Court Publishing, 1911; Buddhist Hymns, Open Court Publishing, 1911; and The New Morn, English Diplomacy, and the Triple Entente: A Phantasmagoria in One Act, by Barrie americanus neutralis, Open Court Publishing, 1916. Contributor to books, including John Wesley Powell: A Memorial to an American Explorer and Scholar, edited by Grove Karl Gilbert, Open Court Publishing, 1903. Contributor to periodicals, including Monist and Open Court. Carus's works have been widely translated, including renderings in Burmese, French, and German.

ADAPTATIONS: Some of Carus's poetry has been set to music for use as Buddhist hymns.



Dial, May 3, 1919, article by William Ellery Leonard.

Open Court, September, 1919, articles by Paul Brauns, Julius Goebel, Philip E. B. Jourdain, and Lydia G. Robinson.



Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and ScientificMethods, April 10, 1919, obituary by J. R. Kantor.*

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