Southern and Northern Schools
All that is far removed from the dominant Southern accounts, which in their tendentiousness are like Roman Catholic histories of Protestantism (or vice versa). The South was established by Shen-hui, a disciple of Hui-neng, at the Great Dharma Assembly on 15 Jan. 732, in Hua-tʾai. Of Shen-hui's earlier life, little is known apart from his disputes with pupils of Shen-hsiu, Pʾu-chi and I-fu. According to the Tun-huang text, Shen-hui argued that Bodhidharma is the authentic source of Zen: he stopped the futile activity of building temples, carving images of the Buddha, and copying sūtras. The dharma seal of recognition and the robe were transmitted to Hui-Kʾo, from whom they were transmitted in unbroken line to Huineng. The Northern protagonist refused to confine transmission to one line, via the robe. Shen-hui replied: ‘The robe authenticates dharma, and the dharma is the doctrine [confirmed by] the robe … There is no other transmission.’ True enlightenment, according to Shen-hui, is a sudden breakthrough to no-mind: ‘Our masters have all grasped enlightenment at a single stroke [Jap., tantō jikinyū], with no concession to steps or progressions.’
North persisted for several more generations, but the Southern view prevailed and became what is now recognized as Zen. But the different emphases between Sōtō and Rinzai indicate that the issue was never wholly resolved.
"Southern and Northern Schools." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 16, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/southern-and-northern-schools
"Southern and Northern Schools." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved October 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/southern-and-northern-schools
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.