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Bodhidharma

Bodhidharma (Chin., P'u-t'i-ta-mo or Tamo; Jap., Bodaidaruma or Daruma, c.5th cent. CE). The 28th successor (hassu) in line from Śākyamuni Buddha, and the first Chinese patriarch of Ch'an/Zen Buddhism. According to the traditional accounts, he engaged in motionless zazen for nine years (hence the name of this period, menpeki-kunen, nine years facing the wall). Hui-k'o joined him as a pupil, and became the second patriarch. The forms of meditation taught by Bodhidharma were based on the Mahāyāna sūtras, with especial emphasis on Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra. It produced Dhyāna Buddhism, with dhyāna (meditation) understood in a broad sense: it was this which fused with Taoism to produce the distinctive form of Ch'an.

Tradition also attributes six treatises to Bodhidharma, of which one, The Two Ways of Entrance, is translated by D. T. Suzuki, Essays in Zen Buddhism, iii (1970). But this, and the whole tradition about Bodhidharma is extremely uncertain.

Bodhidharma is usually portrayed with an appearance of fierce concentration, and Daruma-dolls are given in Japan to those who have attained a goal through perseverance.

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Bodhidharma

Bodhidharma (active 6th century ad) Indian Buddhist monk who travelled to China and founded Zen Buddhism.

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Bodhidharma

Bodhidharma: see Zen Buddhism.

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