In Tantrism dhyāna comes to mean visualization of one's own deity (iṣṭadevatā), maṇḍala, centres (cakra) of the subtle body (liṅga/sūkṣma śarīra), or guru, accompanied by mantra repetition (japa) and symbolic hand gestures (mudra). Dhyāna as visualization is thus the visual equivalent of auditory mantra and corporeal mudra and is an essential part of sādhana.
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