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Japa (Skt., ‘whispering’, ‘repetition’). The main constituent of mantra yoga involving the repetition of a bīja mantra, mantra, or series of mantras given by a guru at initiation (dīkṣa). Often a mālā (rosary) of ṛudrākṣa berries, or of various seeds, shells, or stones, is used to count the repetitions. The practice of japa leads to enlightenment, and to superhuman powers (iddhis).