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Pentecostals/Pentecostalism. Groups of Christians who emphasize the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles at the first (Christian) Pentecost (Acts 2) and the continuing post-conversion work of the Holy Spirit. The modern movements date from the ministry of Charles Parham (1873–1929) in the USA, in 1900/1901. He linked baptism in the Spirit with glossolalia (speaking with tongues), and saw the revival as a restoration of the gifts promised in the latter days. Because experience outweighs formal ministry, there have been many Pentecostal churches. There are at least 130 million Pentecostals worldwide, with particularly rapid expansion in S. America. See also CHARISMATIC (MOVEMENT).

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