Food and religion
SikhismThe diet of most Sikhs is Pañjābī, i.e. spiced vegetables, pulses, and the staple wheat chapātīs, plus dairy produce. Beef is avoided because of Hindu influence. Gurū Gobind Siṅgh forbade amritdhārī Sikhs to eat halal (see AL-HALAL) meat. The Gurū-kā-laṅgar is vegetarian. See also ALCOHOL; NĀMDHĀRĪ.Buddha's advice concerning dietary habits is addressed primarily to those who have embraced the monastic life rather than to lay society. An important principle underlying Buddhist monasticism is that monks should be dependent upon the laity for alms and should go out daily into the local community to beg for food.
The general principle is that monks should accept with gratitude whatever they are given and not be selective in preferring or rejecting particular dishes. In Theravāda Buddhism there is no prohibition on eating meat, providing that the monk has not seen, heard, or suspected that the animal was slaughtered specifically on his behalf.
Under the influence of Mahāyāna Buddhism, which stressed the virtue of compassionate concern for all sentient beings, vegetarianism came to be regarded as the most appropriate diet. Beyond that, the Buddha had clear views on the importance of both psychic and material food (see ĀHĀRA), and urged moderation.DIETARY LAWS), fit, and that which is terefah, unfit. The categories are defined in Torah, though they receive greater elaboration and definition in Talmudic writings.
There are rules concerning slaughter (sheḥitah). For meat to be kasher it must be slaughtered according to the prescribed ritual rules of sheḥitah. Performed by a ritual slaughterman (shoḥet) it involves complex regulations, part of which at least aim at the removal of blood from the carcass.AL-HALAL) broadly follow the Jewish form.eucharist), although one whose meal-like aspects are varyingly stressed. Dominant Christianity contains no explicit food taboos, though monastic observance—in general the avoidance of meat, particularly red meat—and the patterning of fast and feast days, extended to the laity in Friday fasting, draws on a more pervasive structure of meanings.
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