food additives permitted in the EU

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food additives permitted in the EU >

Colours

Yellow and orange colours

E-100

Curcumin

E-101

(i) Riboflavin, (ii) Riboflavin‐5′‐phosphate (vitamin B2)

E-102

Tartrazine (=FD&C Yellow no 6)

E-104

Quinoline yellow

E-110

Sunset Yellow FCF; Orange Yellow S (=FD&C Yellow no 6)

Red colours

E-120

Cochineal; Carminic acid; Carmines

E-122

Azorubine; Carmoisine

E-123

Amaranth

E-124

Ponceau 4R; Cochineal Red A

E-127

Erythrosine (=FD&C Red no 3)

E-128

Red 2G

E-129

Allura Red AC (=FD&C Red no 40)

Blue colours

E-131

Patent Blue V

E-132

lndigotine; Indigo Carmine (=FD&C Blue no 2)

E-133

Brilliant Blue FCF (=FD&C Blue no 1)

Green colours

E-140

Chlorophylls and chlorophyllins (the natural green colour of leaves)

E-141

Copper complexes of chlorophyll and chlorophyllins

E-142

Green S

Brown and black colours

E-150

a Plain caramel

E-150

b Caustic sulphite caramel

E-150

c Ammonia caramel

E-150

d Sulphite ammonia caramel

E-151

Brilliant Black BN; Black PN

E-153

Vegetable carbon

E-154

Brown FK

E-155

Brown HT

Derivatives of carotene

E-160

a Carotenes

E-160

b Annatto; Bixin; Norbixin

E-160

c Paprika extract; Capsanthian; Capsorubin

E-160

d Lycopene

E-160

e Beta‐apo‐8′‐carotenal (C30)

E-160

f Ethyl ester of beta‐apo‐8′‐carotenoic acid (C30)

Other plant colours

E-161

b Lutein

E-161

g Canthaxanthin

E-162

Beetroot Red; Betanin

E-163

Anthocyanins

Inorganic compounds used as colours

E-170

Calcium carbonate

E-171

Titanium dioxide

E-172

Iron oxides and hydroxides

E-173

Aluminium

E-174

Silver

E-175

Gold

E-180

Litholrubine BK

Preservatives

Sorbic acid and its salts

E-200

Sorbic acid

E-202

Potassium sorbate

E-203

Calcium sorbate

Benzoic acid and its salts

E-210

Benzoic acid

E-211

Sodium benzoate

E-212

Potassium benzoate

E-213

Calcium benzoate

E-214

Ethyl p‐hydroxybenzoate

E-215

Sodium ethyl p‐hydroxybenzoate

E-216

Propyl p‐hydroxybenzoate

E-217

Sodium propyl p‐hydroxybenzoate

E-218

Methyl p‐hydroxybenzoate

E-219

Sodium methyl p‐hydroxybenzoate

Sulphur dioxide and its salts

E-220

Sulphur dioxide

E-221

Sodium sulphite

E-222

Sodium hydrogen sulphite

E-223

Sodium metabisulphite

E-224

Potassium metabisulphite

E-226

Calcium sulphite

E-227

Calcium hydrogen sulphite

E-228

Potassium hydrogen sulphite

Biphenyl and its derivatives

E-230

Biphenyl; diphenyl (for surface treatment of citrus fruits)

E-231

Orthophenyl phenol (for surface treatment of citrus fruits)

E-232

Sodium orthophenyl phenol (sodium biphenyl‐2‐yl oxide)

Other preservatives

E-234

Nisin

E-235

Natamycin (NATA, for surface treatment of cheeses and dried cured sausages)

E-239

Hexamethylene tetramine (hexamine)

E-242

Dimethyl dicarbonate

E-110

5 Lysozyme (an antibacterial enzyme found in tears)

Pickling salts

E-249

Potassium nitrite

E-250

Sodium nitrite

E-251

Sodium nitrate

E-252

Potassium nitrate (saltpetre)

Acids and their salts

E-280

Propionic acid

E-281

Sodium propionate

E-282

Calcium propionate

E-283

Potassium propionate

E-284

Boric acid

E-285

Sodium tetraborate; borax

Antioxidants

Vitamin C

E-300

Ascorbic acid

E-301

Sodium ascorbate

E-302

Calcium ascorbate

E-304

Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid (a lipid‐soluble derivative of the vitamin)

Vitamin E

E-306

Tocopherols (natural source, mixed isomers)

E-307

Alpha‐tocopherol

E-308

Gamma‐tocopherol

E-309

Delta‐tocopherol

Other antioxidants

E-310

Propyl gallate

E-311

Octyl gallate

E-312

Dodecyl gallate

E-315

Erythorbic acid (the d‐isomer of vitamin C, little vitamin activity)

E-316

Sodium erythorbate

E-320

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)

E-321

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)

Sweeteners

(Sugar alcohols used as bulk sweeteners)

E-420

(i) Sorbitol, (ii) Sorbitol syrup

E-421

Mannitol

E-953

lsomalt

E-965

(i) Maltitol, (ii) Maltitol syrup

E-966

Lactitol

E-967

Xylitol

Intense (synthetic) sweeteners

E-950

Acesulfame K

E-951

Aspartame

E-952

Cyclamic acid and its Na and Ca salts

E-954

Saccharin and its Na, K and Ca salts

E-957

Thaumatin

E-959

Neohesperidine DC

Emulsifiers, Stabilizers, Thickeners and Gelling Agents

E-322

Lecithins (found especially in egg yolk and soya bean)

Alginates

E-400

Alginic acid

E-401

Sodium alginate

E-402

Potassium alginate

E-403

Ammonium alginate

E-404

Calcium alginate

E-405

Propane‐1,2‐diol alginate

Plant gums (soluble fibre)

E-406

Agar

E-407

Carrageenan

E-407

a Processed eucheuma seaweed

E-410

Locust bean gum; carob gum

E-412

Guar gum

E-413

Tragacanth

E-414

Acacia gum; gum arabic

E-415

Xanthan gum

E-416

Karaya gum

E-417

Tara gum

E-418

Gellan gum

E-425

Konjac

Polysorbates

E-432

Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate; Polysorbate 20

E-433

Polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono‐oleate; Polysorbate 80

E-434

Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate; Polysorbate 40

E-435

Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate; Polysorbate 60

E-436

Polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate; Polysorbate 65

Cellulose derivatives

E-460

Cellulose

E-461

Methyl cellulose

E-463

Hydroxypropyl cellulose

E-464

Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose

E-465

Ethylmethyl cellulose

E-466

Carboxymethylcellulose, Sodium carboxymethylcellulose

E-468

Crosslinked sodium carboxymethylcellulose

E-469

Enzymatically hydrolysed carboxymethylcellulose

Fatty acid derivatives and modified fats

E-470

a Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids

E-470

b Magnesium salts of fatty acids

E-471

Mono‐ and diglycerides of fatty acids

E-472

a Acetic acid esters of mono‐ and diglycerides of fatty acids

E-472

b Lactic acid esters of mono‐ and diglycerides of fatty acids

E-472

c Citric acid esters of mono‐ and diglycerides of fatty acids

E-472

d Tartaric acid esters of mono‐ and diglycerides of fatty acids

E-472

e Mono‐ and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono‐ and diglycerides of fatty acids

E-472

f Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono‐ and diglycerides of fatty acids

E-473

Sucrose esters of fatty acids

E-474

Sucroglycerides

E-475

Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids

E-476

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate

E-477

Propane‐1,2‐diol esters of fatty acids

E-479

b Thermally oxidised soya bean oil interacted with mono and diglycerides of fatty acids

E-481

Sodium stearoyl‐2‐lactylate

E-482

Calcium stearoyl‐2‐lactylate

E-483

Stearyl tartrate

E-491

Sorbitan monostearate

E-492

Sorbitan tristearate

E-493

Sorbitan monolaurate

E-494

Sorbitan mono‐oleate

E-495

Sorbitan monopalmitate

Other compounds

E-440

Pectins (found naturally in fruit, especially apples)

E-442

Ammonium phosphatides

E-444

Sucrose acetate isobutyrate

E-445

Glycerol esters of wood rosins

E-110

3 Invertase

Other additives

Acid, acidity regulators, anti‐caking agents, anti‐foaming agents, bulking agents, carriers and carrier solvents, emulsifying salts, firming agents, flavour enhancers, flour treatment agents, foaming agents, glazing agents, humectants, modified starches, packaging gases, propellants, raising agents and sequestrants.

Acidity regulators

Carbon dioxide and carbonates

E-170

Calcium carbonates

E-290

Carbon dioxide

E-500

Sodium carbonates

E-501

Potassium carbonates

E-503

Ammonium carbonates

E-504

Magnesium carbonates

Acetic acid and its salts

E-260

Acetic acid (vinegar is dilute acetic acid)

E-261

Potassium acetate

E-262

Sodium acetate

E-263

Calcium acetate

Lactic acid and its salts

E-270

Lactic acid (the acid of sour milk)

E-325

Sodium lactate

E-326

Potassium lactate

E-327

Calcium lactate

Citric acid and its salts

E-330

Citric acid

E-331

Sodium citrates

E-332

Potassium citrates

E-333

Calcium citrates

E-380

Triammonium citrate

Tartaric acid and its salts

E-334

Tartaric acid (l‐(+))

E-335

Sodium tartrates

E-336

Potassium tartrates (cream of tartar)

E-337

Sodium potassium tartrate

E-353

Metatartaric acid

E-354

Calcium tartrate

Phosphoric acid and its salts

E-338

Phosphoric acid

E-339

Sodium phosphates

E-340

Potassium phosphates

E-341

Calcium phosphates

E-343

Magnesium phosphates

E-450

Diphosphates

E-451

Triphosphates

E-452

Polyphosphates

E-541

Sodium aluminium phosphate

Malic acid and its salts

E-296

Malic acid

E-350

Sodium malates

E-351

Potassium malate

E-352

Calcium malates

Adipic acid and its salts

E-355

Adipic acid

E-356

Sodium adipate

E-357

Potassium adipate

Hydrochloric acid and its salts

E-507

Hydrochloric acid

E-508

Potassium chloride

E-509

Calcium chloride

E-511

Magnesium chloride

E-512

Stannous chloride

Sulphuric acid and its salts

E-513

Sulphuric acid

E-514

Sodium sulphates

E-515

Potassium sulphates

E-516

Calcium sulphate

E-517

Ammonium sulphate

E-520

Aluminium sulphate

E-521

Aluminium sodium sulphate

E-522

Aluminium potassium sulphate

E-523

Aluminium ammonium sulphate

Other acids and their salts

E-297

Fumaric acid

E-363

Succinic acid

E-385

Calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetra‐acetate; calcium disodium EDTA

Alkalis

E-524

Sodium hydroxide

E-525

Potassium hydroxide

E-526

Calcium hydroxide

E-527

Ammonium hydroxide

E-528

Magnesium hydroxide

E-529

Calcium oxide

E-530

Magnesium oxide

Other salts

E-535

Sodium ferrocyanide

E-536

Potassium ferrocyanide

E-538

Calcium ferrocyanide

Compounds used as anti‐caking agents and other uses

E-422

Glycerol (used as a humectant, also for its sweetness)

E-431

Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate

E-459

Beta‐cyclodextrin

Silicon salts

E-551

Silicon dioxide

E 552 Calcium silicate

E-553

a (i) Magnesium silicate, (ii) Magnesium trisilicate

E-553

b Talc

E-554

Sodium aluminium silicate

E-555

Potassium aluminium silicate

E-556

Aluminium calcium silicate

Other compounds

E-558

Bentonite

E-559

Aluminium silicate; Kaolin

E-570

Fatty acids

E-574

Gluconic acid

E-575

Glucono delta‐lactone

E-576

Sodium gluconate

E-577

Potassium gluconate

E-578

Calcium gluconate

E-579

Ferrous gluconate

E-585

Ferrous lactate

Compounds used as flavour enhancers

Amino acids

E-620

Glutamic acid

E-621

Monosodium glutamate

E-622

Monopotassium glutamate

E-623

Calcium diglutamate

E-624

Monoammonium glutamate

E-625

Magnesium diglutamate

E-640

Glycine and its sodium salt

Nucleotides

E-626

Guanylic acid

E-627

Disodium guanylate

E-628

Dipotassium guanylate

E-629

Calcium guanylate

E-630

lnosinic acid

E-631

Disodium inosinate

E-632

Dipotassium inosinate

E-633

Calcium inosinate

E-634

Calcium 5′‐ribonucleotides

E-635

Disodium 5′‐ribonucleotides

Other compounds

E-650

Zinc acetate

Compounds used as glazing agents

E-900

Dimethylpolysiloxane

E-901

Beeswax, white and yellow

E-902

Candelilla wax

E-903

Carnauba wax

E-904

Shellac

E-905

Microcrystalline wax

E-912

Montan acid esters (for surface treatment of citrus fruits)

E-914

Oxidised Polyethylene wax

Compounds used to treat flour

E-920

l‐Cysteine (an amino acid)

E-927

b Carbamide

Propellant gases

E-938

Argon

E-939

Helium

E-941

Nitrogen

E-942

Nitrous oxide

E-943

a Butane

E-943

b Iso‐butane

E-944

Propane

E-948

Oxygen

E-949

Hydrogen

Modified starches (used as thickening and gelling agents)

E-140

4 Oxidised starch

E-141

0 Monostarch phosphate

E-141

2 Distarch phosphate

E-141

3 Phosphated distarch phosphate

E-141

4 Acetylated distarch phosphate

E-142

0 Acetylated starch

E-142

2 Acetylated distarch adipate

E-144

0 Hydroxylpropyl starch

E-144

2 Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate

E-145

0 Starch sodium octanoyl succinate

E-145

1 Acetylated oxidised starch

Miscellaneous compounds

E-999

Quillaia extract

E-120

0 Polydextrose

E-120

1 Polyvinylpyrrolidone

E-120

2 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone

E-150

5 Triethyl citrate

E-151

8 Glyceryl triacetate; triacetin

E-152

0 Propane‐1,2‐diol; propylene glycol


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food additives permitted in the EU

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