Skip to main content


Tissaphernes (tĬs´əfûr´nēz), d. 395 BC, Persian satrap of coastal Asia Minor (c.413–395 BC). He was encouraged by Alcibiades (412) to intervene in the Peloponnesian War in support of Sparta. Out of favor with Cyrus the Younger, he rebuilt his fortunes by siding with Artaxerxes II and helping him to defeat Cyrus in the battle of Cunaxa (401). He pursued the retreating Greek allies (the Ten Thousand) and treacherously murdered Clearchus and four other Greek leaders (Xenophon). Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus were the chief figures in Artaxerxes' reign. After Tissaphernes asserted supremacy over the Ionian cities, he was involved in war with the Spartans, and Agesilaus II defeated him in 395. He was removed from office and assassinated.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Tissaphernes." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 19 Aug. 2019 <>.

"Tissaphernes." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (August 19, 2019).

"Tissaphernes." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 19, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.