Alexander Stambuliski, Bulgarian Aleksandr Stamboliski (both: älĕksän´dər stämbōlē´skē), 1879–1923, Bulgarian politician. He was a leader of the Peasants' party and by 1911 had become head of the opposition to Czar Ferdinand of Bulgaria. He was jailed (1915–18) for opposing the entry of Bulgaria into World War I on the side of the Central Powers. When he was released he proclaimed a republic, but the movement was defeated. After Ferdinand's deposition and the accession of Boris III, Stambuliski became premier (1919) and virtual dictator (1920). Supported by his peasant Orange Guard, he used his powers to carry out agrarian reforms and founded the Green Peasant International. He sought to carry out the provisions of the Treaty of Neuilly, which he had helped to negotiate in 1919. In 1923 a coup, supported by army officers and Macedonian nationalists led by Alexander Tsankov, overthrew his government, and Stambuliski was killed.