Skip to main content

Richelieu, Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, duc de

Armand Emmanuel du Plessis Richelieu, duc de (ärmäN´ ĕmänüĕl´ dü plĕsē´ dük də rēshəlyö´), 1766–1822, French statesman. An émigré from the French Revolution, he served Russia as governor of Odessa (1803) and of the Crimea (1805). Made chief minister of France by King Louis XVIII after the Hundred Days (1815), he secured the quick payment by France of the indemnity imposed by the second Treaty of Paris (1815) and thus hastened the evacuation of occupation troops. In his domestic policy, Richelieu favored leniency toward the ex-revolutionists and Bonapartists, thus displeasing the ultraroyalists headed by the king's brother, the comte d'Artois (later King Charles X). In 1816 Richelieu persuaded the king to dissolve the extreme reactionary chamber of deputies (the so-called chambre introuvable) rather than submit to its program. Richelieu resigned in 1818, but returned to power in 1820, after the murder of the duc de Berry caused the fall of Élie Decazes. His measures against the radicals were not sufficient to suit the ultraroyalists, who applied pressure on Louis XVIII and secured (1821) Richelieu's dismissal. With Richelieu's successor, the comte de Villèle, the ultraroyalists came into power.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Richelieu, Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, duc de." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 21 Apr. 2018 <>.

"Richelieu, Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, duc de." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (April 21, 2018).

"Richelieu, Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, duc de." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.