Parti Québécois (pärtē kēbĕkwä´) (PQ), provincial political party committed to the independence of Quebec. Founded in 1968, it soon became a force in provincial elections. In 1976, led by René Lévesque, it captured control of the provincial assembly. Among its first acts was the passage of Bill 101, controversial legislation that made French the official language of Quebec and prohibited the use of English on signs and in most commercial transactions. It also introduced much social legislation, such as no-fault auto insurance legislation. In May, 1980, voters in the long-awaited provincial referendum rejected the proposition that Quebec should proceed to negotiate for its independence. Despite this, the party won the 1981 provincial elections. Internal dissension over the result of the 1980 referendum led to a weakening of the party. Lévesque resigned as party leader in 1985, and the PQ was defeated in provincial elections later that year. Subsequent party leaders Pierre-Marc Johnson and Jacques Parizeau struggled to return the PQ to its earlier success. In 1994 the party returned to power, and Parizeau became Quebec's premier. He resigned as premier and party leader, however, after Quebec voters narrowly rejected independence in a PQ-sponsored referendum in 1995; Lucien Bouchard succeeded him. The PQ remained in power after the 1998 provincial elections. Bouchard resigned as party leader and premier in 2001, and Bernard Landry succeeded him, serving as premier until the PQ's loss at the polls in 2003. André Boisclair succeed Landry as party leader in 2005. The PQ placed third in 2007 provincial elections, behind the Liberals and the conservative Action Démocratique, a party that called for autonomy for Quebec. Boisclair subsequently resigned as PQ leader; Pauline Marois succeeded him. Under Marois the PQ dropped its vow to hold a new referendum on independence soon after regaining control of the provincial government. In 2008 the PQ again lost to the Liberals but placed second. The party won a plurality in 2012, and Marois became Quebec's first woman premier, but lost to the Liberals in 2014.
"Parti Québécois." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 26, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/parti-quebecois
"Parti Québécois." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/parti-quebecois
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.