Nurhaci or Nurhachi (nōōr´hächē), 1559–1626, Manchu national founder. He consolidated the Manchu tribes under his control and founded the administration that later ruled China as the Ch'ing dynasty (1644–1912). His greatest achievement was the creation of the banner system of military organization that welded the Manchu nation and its early Mongol and Chinese adherents into an efficient war machine. In 1618 he attacked the Ming forces and took part of Liaodong. Further victories followed, and in 1625 he moved the Manchu capital to Shenyang (Mukden). During this later period, Nurhaci developed a civil administration with the help of captured Chinese officials.
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