Kaohsiung or Kao-hsiung (both: gou´shyōōng´), city (1995 pop. 1,426,035), S Taiwan. It is the second largest city of Taiwan and its leading port. Its designation as an export processing zone in the late 1970s has stimulated foreign investment. The leading industries produce petroleum products, steel, cement, aluminum, wood and paper products, fertilizers, metals, and machinery; shipbuilding is also carried on. Kaohsiung is connected by high-speed rail to Taipei. The city grew up from a small fishing village and was developed as a manufacturing center and port by the Japanese, who occupied Taiwan in 1895. Nearby is an important naval base.