Ioánnina (yôä´nēnä), city (1991 pop. 56,699), capital of Ioánnina prefecture, NW Greece, in Epirus, on Lake Ioánnina. The chief city of Epirus, it is the commercial center for an agricultural region. Manufactures include textiles and gold and silver products. Founded c.527 by Justinian, Ioánnina became an important city in the 11th cent. It was taken (1081) by the Normans, and in 1204, Michael I, despot of Epirus, made it his capital. It was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1430. Ali Pasha made it (1788) the stronghold of his virtually independent state. Ioánnina passed to Greece in 1913 as a result of the First Balkan War. Long a center of Greek learning, it is today the seat of the Univ. of Ioánnina. The city also appears as Janina, Jannina, or Yannina.
"Ioánnina." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 17, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ioannina
"Ioánnina." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ioannina
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.