Skip to main content


Gorno-Badakhshan (gôr´nə-bädäkhshän´, –bədəkhshän´) or Badakhshan, Tajik Kuhistoni Badakhshon, autonomous province (1991 est. pop. 167,100), c.24,600 sq mi (63,710 sq km), roughly constituting the eastern half of Tajikistan, in the Pamir. It is bordered by China on the east and by Afghanistan on the south and west and is separated from Pakistan and Azad Kashmir by a narrow strip of Afghan territory. The eastern section (East Pamir) is a high plateau, and the western part (West Pamir) is cut by high ranges and deep, narrow valleys. Khorugh is the capital. The population is mainly Pamiri, who speak several Iranian languages, with Kyrgyz and other minorities. In addition to the local languages, Tajik and Russian are widely spoken. Gold, salt, mica, limestone, and coal are mined. In the east livestock is raised (yaks, sheep, cattle, and goats), and in the western valleys grain, vegetables, and beans are grown.

Formerly under the control of the Mongols and the Arabs, the region passed to Russian control in 1895. Under Soviet rule, the area became the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region in 1925. Since Tajikstan's independence, central government control in the region has been tenuous. Former warlords (from the country's 1990s civil war) retain considerable influence and engage in drug and tobacco smuggling, and fighting between local armed groups and government forces erupted in mid-2012. The region also has been called Mountain-Badakhshan.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gorno-Badakhshan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 19 Mar. 2018 <>.

"Gorno-Badakhshan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (March 19, 2018).

"Gorno-Badakhshan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 19, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.