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GORNI (pl. Grana ), term used for the Jewish immigrants from Leghorn (Livorno), who began to settle in North Africa, especially in Tunisia, from the 17th century on. Livorno was called Leghorn(a) in Jewish sources (e.g., David Reuveni), as well as by English sailors, and Jews and Arabs in the Maghreb. The first syllable Le was used as an article, making al-Ghorn(a); from this came the appellative (al-)Gorni. The Grana were essentially merchants; their commercial activity was strictly connected with the Jews of Livorno. They were 400 or 500 in 1821, their number rose to 2,500 or 3,000 in 1893 and to about 5,000 in 1938. Until the 1940s the Gorni constituted separate congregations in Tunis and in other towns of Tunisia, with their own administration, bet din, and communal institutions. At all times, the Grana considered themselves as belonging to the European culture (besides Arabic, they spoke Spanish, Italian, and French) and felt separate from the "Tuansa," i.e., the old Jewish residents of Tunisia.


A. Milano, in: Miscellanea di studi in memoria di Dario Disegni (1969), 139–51; R. Attal, in rej, 141:1–2 (1982), 223–35; Y. Abrahami, Pinkas ha-Kehillah ha-Yehudit ha-Portugesit be-Tunis: 1710–1944 (1997); L. Lévy, La Communauté juive de Livourne. Le dernier des Livournais (1996); idem, La Nation Juive Portugaise. Livorno, Amsterdam, Tunis 1591–1951 (2003).

[Haïm Z'ew Hirschberg /

Alessandro Guetta (2nd ed.)]

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