Eugene III, d. 1153, pope (1145–53), a Pisan named Bernard (probably in full Bernardo dei Paganelli di Montemagno); successor of Lucius II. Before his election he was called Bernard of Pisa. He was prominent among the Cistercians, then in their first flower, and was the friend of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, who wrote De consideratione for him when he became pope. Eugene's pontificate was disturbed from the beginning by Arnold of Brescia, whom he ordered to return to Rome in penitence. In 1146 the agitation of Arnold and the republicans drove the pope from Rome. Eugene and St. Bernard led in promoting the disastrous Second Crusade. While in exile (1146–49, 1150–52) the pope busied himself with reforming the clerical discipline of Western Europe. He was succeeded by Anastasius IV. Eugene was beatified in 1872.